Interest groups offer SAA members the opportunity to exchange information and ideas on specific topics. To promote these conversations, interest groups may support an e-Community (an online forum for sharing ideas and information); sponsor symposia, forums, workshops, or special event(s) at the Annual Meeting; contribute articles to The SAA Archaeological Record or to a journal of the SAA; and/or propose position and policy statements for consideration by the SAA Executive Board.

To be eligible for Interest Group membership or to participate in any e-Community discussions, you must be a current SAA member.

Members can access any e-Communities to the Interest Groups they have joined.

Members may change interest group selections at any time of the year by logging in here.

SAA Interest Groups

To view Chair contact information for each group, please visit the Interest Group Directory.

Unique Areas of Interest and Concern

A rapidly growing focus of study in archaeology is the roles, material lives, and lived experiences of peoples of African descent in Latin America and the Caribbean. During the long history of the African slave trade, over 90 percent of the Africans forcibly imported into the Americas went to Latin America and the Caribbean. Archaeology of African and African American contexts in the United States is now a well-established realm of inquiry that has given us an unparalleled view into the unwritten history of enslaved and free daily lives; the impacts of African presence in Latin America were just as profound and started even earlier. In fact, the events and processes related to and produced by Afro-Latin Americans--cultural forms, community practices, and pivotal agents--were crucial to the making of Latin America and continue to be a vital element informing Latin American life today. A focus on Afro-Latin American archaeology opens up dialogues about colonialism, gender, race, labor, and systems of power and inequality and offers the possibility to transcend boundaries in archaeological practice and knowledge inhibited by colonial jurisdictions and contemporary nation-states.

Needs the Interest Group Will Address

An SAA Interest Group in Afro-Latin American Archaeology will strengthen this relatively new focus in archaeology by providing ways for specialists working on Afro-Latin American archaeology to come together. Although the number of researchers focusing on Afro-Latin American archaeology is growing rapidly, this community is now so balkanized that its members are little aware that they are indeed part of a substantial and vibrant group, and consequently rarely get to enjoy the benefits of a community: support, encouragement, mentorship, strength through combined efforts, and value from placing one’s own efforts within a larger context, all benefits that an SAA Interest Group will foster.

Procedure for Selecting and Rotating a Chairperson

The term for the Chairperson will be three years, one year of which includes the year as Chair-elect. The election will be held one month before the SAA meeting and will be conducted online among Interest Group members. Sampeck will serve as founding Chairperson until 2020, and the first election will take place in the spring of 2019. This timing allows the membership to grow and for information about election procedures and timing to be publicized.

 

Statement of Purpose

The Archaeologist-Collector Collaboration Interest Group (ACCIG) serves as a vehicle for all ethical stewards of past material culture—regardless of level of formal archaeological training—to cultivate, nurture and advance collaborative undertakings that benefit the archaeological record and understanding thereof.

Area of interest and concern

At the request of the SAA Board of Directors, a 2016 SAA Task Force (TF) studied and submitted formal recommendations to the Board outlining how archaeologists can effectively and ethically collaborate with non-professionals, including artifact collectors with legally acquired materials. Also at SAA’s behest, the TF identified “action items” designed to facilitate and nurture such relationships. Among other suggestions, the TF recommended formation of an SAA Interest Group to serve as a vehicle for those interested in advancing collaborative relationships.

Needs the interest group will address

As the TF elaborated in its final report to the SAA Board, relationships among professional archaeologists and avocational archaeologists (some of who legally collect artifacts), have become increasingly strained over the past few decades. Because much of the physical archaeological record of the Americas is in private hands, it is detrimental to the discipline for archaeologists to refuse to collaborate with such individuals, as an increasing number have done. The interest group will provide a space for what were once standard (and positive) relationships among diverse archaeological stakeholders to once again grow strong.   

Members of the interest group will identify specific challenges to stakeholder relationships and to the privately held archaeological record, and develop and implement solutions to them. Examples of challenges include ensuring that private collections throughout the Americas (as feasible) are documented in as much detail as possible; developing best practices for archaeologists and partners to foster site preservation and collaboration; and educating graduate students and professional archaeologists in appropriate ways to engage with responsible members of the artifact-collecting public.

Services the interest group will deliver

As the group identifies challenges to relationships among stakeholders who share a passion for the past and challenges to that portion of the archaeological record in private hands, and it will also develop and implement solutions to those challenges. The solutions will be the group’s principal “deliverables.” The group will also host regular SAA forums to report on progress, raise awareness of the group among prospective members, and identify new member-defined priorities. No fee will be required to join. If an interest-group undertaking will require financial resources, the group will determine how to acquire them.

Procedure for selecting and rotating a chairperson

The chairperson or co-chairs will serve a term of two years. At the culmination of a leadership term, the chair (or co-chairs) will poll members of the group via e-mail, first to determine interest in the position and then, if more than one member has expressed interest, to vote for the incoming chair.

e-Community

Members can access any  e-Communities to the Interest Groups they have joined.

Statement of Purpose

The Bioarchaeology Interest Group focuses on fostering a community and network for SAA members interested in a broad range of professional and scholarly issues in the field of bioarchaeology, and its related disciplines, such as mortuary/funerary archaeology, forensic anthropology/archaeology, and osteoarchaeology. All members are welcome to partake regardless of academic or professional standing.

Objectives

Bioarchaeology is a vibrant and rapidly growing field, with a substantial number of current SAA members engaged in related work. Researchers in bioarchaeology and related sub-fields regularly contribute to a growing number of theoretically and methodologically focused podium and poster sessions at the annual society meetings. The Bioarchaeology Interest Group has the following objectives:

  • to promote the study, understanding, and importance of contemporary bioarchaeology and its related sub-fields
  • to facilitate the development of collaborations and networks across bioarchaeologists nationally and internationally
  • to promote the development of community-based and collaborative bioarchaeological research, that works closely with descendant communities
  • to provide support to students and junior professional members through mentorship and guidance.
  • to promote professional ethics in the training of bioarchaeologists and others who work with human remains
  • to encourage public engagement and community outreach and the broader dissemination of bioarchaeological research
  • to serve as a voice and point of contact for SAA members interested in issues related to bioarchaeology in order to facilitate communication and awareness of current news, public policies, ethical concerns, and announcements

Activities

  • the Bioarchaeology Interest Group will hold an annual gathering(s) at the SAA Annual Meeting (with a formal meeting typically after the SAA annual evening business meeting Friday 7-8pm)
  • the group will submit an annual report of activities/members to the SAA Board of Directors as requested
  • to sponsor sessions, forums, symposia, workshops, and social and networking events during the annual SAA meeting
  • to provide a forum to distribute information on current bioarchaeology field schools
  • to provide a forum to distribute information on professional and academic funding opportunities (grants, fellowships, scholarships, field school funding) in bioarchaeology
  • to include and encourage students, professional archaeologists, museum curators, and public interest groups in the Bioarchaeology Interest Group activities and discussions
  • to disseminate announcements regarding grants, awards, pertinent legislation, and conferences via the SAA interest group webpage with iMIS Communities, and/or e-mail, and social media platforms
  • the group may propose positions and/or policy statements for consideration through the Executive Director of SAA Board of Directors.
  • the group may publish a newsletter or sponsor a special publication of the Bioarchaeology Interest Group with the SAA Publications Committee

Procedure for selecting and rotating a chairperson

A system of rotating Chair(s) every three years will be implemented. Candidates will be solicited by a call for nominations on email prior to the annual SAA spring meetings. With those in attendance at the annual Bioarchaeology Interest Group

business meeting, there will be an open discussion, and a general election of the nominees by vote of enrolled members of the interest group who are present at the gathering. Through this process a Chair(s) will be elected and the position will rotate among interested member(s).

Statement of Purpose

The Curation Interest Group (CIG) is organized to promote the value of archaeological collections care, management, conservation, and long-term preservation. The CIG will share and distribute resources related to these values such that those working in the field and the laboratory, or developing projects and project budgets, may make informed decisions about longterm curation.

 

Objectives

  1. To encourage adoption of best practices by all archaeologists and other stakeholders as they make decisions about curation and collections management
  2. To make available and disseminate information about curation best practices for all stakeholders involved in the process of archaeology (e.g., students, faculty, CRM archaeologists, government archaeologists and curators, descendent communities, etc.)
  3. To encourage discussion among repository managers and staffs about common issues among repositories and for stakeholders, such as CRM firms and government archaeologists, who curate collections at those repositories
  4. To promote the value of integrating curation, conservation, and collections management into undergraduate and graduate anthropology curricula
  5. To advocate for collections-based research becoming part of every professional archaeologist’s toolkit, especially during undergraduate and graduate training
  6. To bring together people with a common interest in archaeological curation

Activities

  1. Sponsor sessions at the SAA Annual Meeting, as appropriate
  2. Conduct an in-person business meeting at the SAA Annual Meeting
  3. Develop and maintain dialogue between individuals concerned with current and future curation issues through a newsletter and/or social media platforms
  4. Make curation and best practices resources available to all interested parties
  5. Contribute white papers, SAA publications, journal articles, and other written works to the field and to SAA, as appropriate

 Selection and Rotation of a Chairperson

The CIG proposes the following procedure for selecting and rotating a chairperson and chairelect:

  1. That the chairperson shall serve a 2-year term, beginning and ending at the SAA Annual Meeting.
  2. That nominations be solicited 1-3 months prior to the next year’s Annual Meeting for chair-elect.
  3. That a chair-elect be selected through majority vote at the next year’s Annual Meeting, allowing the chair-elect to overlap with the chairperson for a period of one year.
  4. That the chair-elect assume the role of chairperson at the Annual Meeting the following year.
  5. That no person shall serve two consecutive terms as chairperson, unless no nominated persons accept the duties and no alternative persons can be located.

Statement of Purpose

The Fiber Perishables Interest Group is concerned with the identification, analysis, and interpretation of archaeological materials manufactured from plant or animal fibers and the materials themselves. Such materials include basketry, cordage, textiles, sandals, and other types of artifacts constructed from interworked fibrous elements. Although unevenly preserved in the archaeological record, fiber-perishable artifacts have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of prehistoric technologies and stylistic behavior. Because lack of experience with these fragile materials has often resulted in their inadvertent destruction, the group is also concerned with the issues of field recovery and preservation of perishable archaeological remains.

Objectives

  1. Foster communication among researchers in this small but growing area of study
  2. Serve as a central forum for disseminating information about current research projects and methodological concerns
  3. Members will function as a resource to the archaeological community at large by raising awareness of the goals, methods, and findings of fiber-perishables research

Activities

Every other year, FPIG sponsors a symposium at the SAA annual meeting. Other activities, such as workshops and tours, are under consideration. The yearly FPIG business meeting is held in conjunction with the SAA annual meeting. Beyond official agenda, it provides an opportunity to socialize with fellow fiber aficionados. For between-meeting interaction, FPIG sponsors an on-line conference. FPIG aspires to provide information about and access to a broad spectrum of sources and activities related to archaeological perishables.

Newsletter Archives

All past and current newsletters are in the Interest Group's e-Community (see Resource Library). Members can access any e-Communities to the Interest Groups they have joined.

The Digital Data Interest Group is organized to promote the preservation and sharing of archaeological data that are maintained in digital form. The long-term conservation and protection of the archaeological record demands not only that we preserve digital documents, images, and databases, but also that we make these information resources available to other scholars so that they may be effectively used to advance archaeological understandings of the past. The interest group will seek ways to foster the development of shared digital archives of archaeological data using software that can maximize their research value while securing the confidentiality of sensitive information, and ensuring that data sources are properly credited.

Objectives

  1. Foster communication among researchers interested in sharing and preserving digital archaeological data.
  2. Provide a forum to foster collaborations among initiatives concerned with sharing digital data and to encourage involvement in there efforts by a broader community of scholars.
  3. Promote data sharing and preservation to the broader archaeological community.

Activities

  1. Sponsor occasional forums and symposia at the SAA annual meeting.
  2. An annual business meeting, held in conjunction with the SAA annual meeting, will provide an opportunity for members to share information and develop initiatives.

SAA Requirements

The interest group will disseminate information over the Internet and requests from SAA only calls for participation and link in SAAWeb link to a non-SAA server that will host the Interest Group. Beyond these needs, no expense to SAA is anticipated, no additional services are requested. The interest group does not request annual dues or operating expenses. The chair will be elected at each annual business meeting.

Statement of Purpose

The goal of the Geoarchaeology Interest Group is to advance the science of geoarchaeology, ensure continued professional development of members within the group, and assist in educating future geoarchaeologists.

Objectives

  • Regularly sponsor a symposium at the annual SAA meeting.
  • Periodically sponsor a field trip at the annual SAA meeting. The trip will be organized by a committee.
  • Periodically sponsor or organize a short course on some aspect of geoarchaeology at the annual SAA meeting. Such courses greatly enhance professional development. They revitalize research objectives, retrain professionals who may not have remained current with all aspects of the field, and provide training opportunities for students.
  • Support or co-sponsor the publication of papers from its annual symposium in a collected format.
  • Provide students with information on
    • undergraduate and graduate programs in geoarchaeology, and
    • funding opportunities for thesis and dissertation research.
  • Although many universitites offer both archaeology and geology courses, few offer a coordinated, combined program. Yet most do have all the essentials for a geoarchaeology program, if simply the cross-links were emphasized. The geoarchaeology interest group will help students determine exactly what graduate and undergraduate courses are available in various universities that lead to some training in geoarchaeology.
  • Establish ties with other archaeological and geological organizations, such as the American Quartenary Association and the Archaeological Geology Division of the Geological Society of America. We will explore the possibility of developing symposia, theme sessions, and/or short courses to be held to increased membership and activity within the Geoarchaeology Interest Group and the SAA.

Statement of Purpose

The Heritage Values Interest Group is concerned with how the past is valued in, and by, contemporary society. A principal objective is to advance understanding regarding the complex concept of heritage and its burgeoning and significant role in the current discipline and practice of archaeology. As such, it endeavors to provide an open forum for exchange and dialogue that acknowledges the multiplicity of the past in contemporaneous representations of material cultures and landscapes.

The Heritage Values Interest Group seeks to provide an environment for SAA members to explore the ways in which heritage is constructed and construed and to what extent that composition coheres with or contradicts value systems ingrained in diverse discourses, such as national paradigms, international standards, codes of ethics, management schemes, collective memory, and shared or dissonant identities. It therefore explores the multi-faceted meanings of the past, probes the ensuing derivation and ascription of value, and embraces international and interdisciplinary lines of inquiry.

 

Objectives

  1. To promote the study and understanding of ‘heritage’ and ‘value’ within archaeology
  2. To advance the concept of ‘heritage values’ as an integral component to the practice and discipline of archaeology in contemporary society
  3. To provide an open and dynamic forum that not only fosters exchange, interaction, and collaboration among SAA members regarding the role of ‘heritage’ in archaeology but also offers an avenue for action on ‘heritage’ issues
  4. To serve as a resource and point of contact for SAA members by enhancing communication, raising awareness, and facilitating the dissemination of information regarding ‘heritage’
  5. To examine the practical concerns and theoretical underpinnings pertaining to the concept of heritage and to the manner in which value is derived and ascribed to the heritage of archaeology to gain a greater understanding of the breadth and scope of how ‘heritage values’ impact archaeology in order to be better equipped to implement public policy, spending, management schemes, educational curricula, training programs, among other projects
  6. To encourage interdisciplinary and international engagement, debate, research and networks

Activities

  1. Hold meetings and elections in conjunction with the SAA Annual Meeting.
  2. Form an electronic network to enable communication among members between such yearly meetings.
  3. Sponsor sessions, symposia, forums, workshops, or special events at SAA Annual Meetings.
  4. Propose position and/or policy statements to the SAA Board.
  5. Contribute articles, reports, updates, and other applicable news to be printed in SAA publications, such as The SAA Archaeological Record.

Newsletter Archives

All past newsletters are in the Interest Group's e-Community (see Resource Library). Members can access any e-Communities to the Interest Groups they have joined.

Statement of Purpose

The Historical Ecology Interest Group aims to provide a space for archaeologists using historical ecological perspectives to network and collaborate. The group also aims to promote and increase awareness about the potential of historical ecology to address contemporary social and environmental issues.

Objectives

  • To provide a space for networking and collaboration among the archaeologists who use historical ecology as a framework for their research.
  • To allow for archaeologists of different methodological backgrounds to engage in discourse about historical ecology.
  • To provide a more visible platform for the organization of sessions and other activities.
  • To educate a broader range of SAA members about the field of historical ecology and its applications to archaeology.
  • To encourage young professionals to interact and establish relationships with mentors in the field.
  • To create and maintain a listserv and Facebook page to disseminate information about recent research, scholarships, graduate programs and any other information relevant to historical ecology.

Activities

  • To sponsor a session at the annual meeting which allows for focus on more specific or shifting aspects of historical ecology.
  • To sponsor social and networking events at the annual meeting.
  • To periodically organize field trips.

Procedure for selecting and rotating a chairperson

We suggest annual elections of two co-chairs, with the new term starting at the time of the annual meeting.

Newsletter Archives

All past newsletters are in the Interest Group's e-Community (see Resource Library). SAA members can access any e-Communities to the Interest Groups they have joined.

Archiving the Archaeologists Project

SAA's "Archiving the Archaeologists" series is an oral history project designed to capture personal insights and recollections of archaeologists near retirement or already retired. Archaeologists interviewed in the series reflect on their careers, how and why they became archaeologists, and their contributions to the discipline. This series not only archives the words and images of senior archaeologists, but it also provides other archaeologists, avocationalists, students, and the public insight into what it is like to be an archaeologist in a particular time and place. The interviews are available for all to view at the SAA YouTube channel.

Statement of Purpose

The subject of island and coastal environments is being increasingly recognized as one of the most important areas of research in studies of world prehistory and archaeology. The continued interest shown by a variety of researchers worldwide – archaeologists, anthropologists, biologists, geographers, and environmental scientists – is indicative of the need for a venue to discuss issues of island colonization, the role that marine resources played in human history, the impacts people had on coastal and/or pristine environments, historical ecology, and the development of seafaring technology, to name a few.

The Island & Coastal Archaeology interest group is aimed at archaeologists and other scientists with interests in the techniques, methodologies, and theories used to investigate island and coastal regions. The interest group provides an international forum for archaeologists from different scientific backgrounds who share a common interest in studying islands, archipelagoes, and coastal regions across time and space. The goal of the interest group is to advance the field of island and coastal archaeology and facilitate the professional development and growth of scholars interested in questions related to the role that these environments played in human history.

Objectives

  1. Serve as a mechanism for highlighting the importance that island and coastal environments have for understanding human cultural and biological development through time;
  2. Provide a sounding board and a means to facilitate discussion among members who wish to pursue (or are currently pursuing) archaeological research in these environments;
  3. Facilitate the development of collaborations among a diverse group of scholars across the social and natural sciences.

Activities

  1. Regularly sponsor a symposium at the annual SAA meeting;
  2. Periodically sponsor the publication of papers from the symposium in the Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology;
  3. Periodically sponsor a field trip at the annual SAA meeting, if location is amenable;
  4. Communicate with members of the interest group through an annual (or biannual) newsletter;
  5. Provide students with information on undergraduate and graduate programs that focus on various aspects of island and coastal archaeology.

Newsletter and e-Community

All past and current newsletters are available at the Island & Coastal site. SAA members can access any e-Communities to the Interest Groups they have joined.

Areas of Interest and Concern

The Department of Defense’s responsibility of cultural resources management and stewardship is a constantly changing and expanding challenge. As a federal agency, regulatory compliance –particularly the stewardship of archaeological resources – is a primary concern for DoD cultural resource management programming. Already the DoD is responsible for the management of 21 million acres of domestic lands, which holds over 111,000 known archaeological sites in public trust. Additionally, section 402 of the NHPA and the 2009 ratification of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict places greater responsibility on the DoD to develop a stewardship plan for cultural property, including archaeological sites, found on bases outside the United States and in foreign theaters of operation. The archaeological community at large offers expertise and interest that can significantly assist the DoD in achieving its stewardship responsibilities and requirements under domestic and international law. This challenge can only be successfully accomplished through the increased dialogue and collaboration with those members of the Society of American Archaeology that are most concerned with these issues.  

The Military Archaeological Resources Stewardship (MARS) Interest Group seeks to bring together members of the SAA who have interests in military archaeology and to provide said members with an environment to meet and discuss initiatives to identify and protect cultural and historic resources during military operations. 

Objectives

  • To provide a forum for increased collaboration between DoD archaeologists and the general archaeological community, relevant parties and stakeholders;
  • To provide a venue for information exchange between archaeologists who work on military lands.
  • To provide an open and dynamic forum that not only fosters exchange, interaction, and collaboration among SAA members regarding the role of the military in archaeological stewardship but also offers an avenue for action on issues concerning archaeology and the military
  • To facilitate the dissemination of information regarding military archaeological resources stewardship
  • To examine practical means of protecting archaeological resources during military operations.
  • To encourage interdisciplinary and international engagement, debate, research and networks.

Activities

The Military Archaeological Resources Stewardship Interest Group will hold informal gatherings at SAA annual meetings for interested SAA members to meet, network, develop initiatives, and exchange information on the topic.

  • Hold meetings in conjunction with the SAA annual meeting.
  • Hold annual elections.
  • Submit annual reports of activities to the SAA Board of Directors.
  • Network through electronic communications.
  • Sponsor sessions, symposia, forums, workshops, or special events at SAA Annual Meetings.
  • Propose position and/or policy statements to the SAA Board.
  • Contribute articles, reports, updates, and other applicable news to SAA publications, such as The SAA Archaeological Record.

Chairperson Selection

A Chair will be elected for a two year term through a digital election, providing a Chair and a Chair-elect to oversee the MARS Group. In this manner, the position will rotate among interested members. Terms will begin and end at the annual meetings.

Unique Areas of Interest and Concern

The Open Science Interest Group supports Open Science in archaeology. This means making archaeological methods, data and interpretations accessible to anyone, without financial or copyright barriers. These goals overlap with the Digital Data Interest Group and the Public Archaeology Interest Group, and the Open Science Interest Group will support and amplify the goals of those existing groups. The unique and specific aim of the Open Science group is to promote the reproducibility of published research through sharing of research products traditionally not included with publications, especially methods and data, so that these products (i) can be re-used and extended by other researchers, and (ii) demonstrate the correctness of published research. In this context, reproducibility refers to reproducing the computational and statistical methods and products of a research project. This is consistent with three of the goals of the SAA’s mission statement:

1. “SAA advances archaeological research and disseminates archaeological knowledge”

The group will support this goal by encouraging archaeologists to conduct research that is transparent, reusable and accessible without financial or copyright barriers. This group will educate archaeologists about options for using open source software and code sharing services, making data available at public repositories, publishing research in open access journals, and making publication pre-prints freely available on public repositories.

2. “SAA improves the practice of archaeology and promotes archaeological ethics”

The group will support this goal by increasing awareness of tools for exposing more of their research workflow for review by anyone. By promoting transparency and reproducibility in archaeological research this group will enhance the credibility of archaeological research by allowing more complete independent assessment of research findings than is possible with traditional peer review processes. The group will promote archaeological projects that are open to public contributions and involvement, and educate archaeologists on how to enable this practice. Open Science supports ethical research by enabling researchers to demonstrate responsibility for their work by exposing of more the research workflow to the public.

3. “SAA serves as a bond among archaeologists worldwide in all segments of the archaeological community”

This group will encourage and support archaeologists who are striving to practice Open Science principles in their research, teaching, outreach, and engagement with policymakers and managers.

 

Needs the Interest Group Will Address

Many disciplines closely related to archaeology have large communities that have adopted principles and practises of Open Science, and many archaeologists have already taken inspiration from biologists, ecologists, palaeontologists, etc. who practice Open Science. However, it can be challenging for isolated archaeologists to determine what principles and practises from other disciplines are most suitable and relevant to archaeology. The Open Science Interest Group will address this need for a reliable and efficient source of information on Open Science that is especially relevant to archaeologists. The group will be a community of archaeologists who are interested to learn about Open Science tools relevant to archaeology, share advice and information about resources and best practices, present a unified voice to influence institutions to adopt policies that favor Open Science, and recognize those who have made substantial contributions to the Open Science movement in archaeology. The group’s specific mission is to:

  • Advance openness in the way archaeologists and institutions handle data, methods, and research outputs, especially in the context of policy making. This includes promoting the public availability and reusability of scientific data and methods, the reproducibility of scientific results, the public accessibility and transparency of scientific communication, and the use of web-based tools to facilitate scientific collaboration.
  • Share information with people and institutions on how to develop open practices that enable reproducible research, and provide training with the necessary tools to optimise transparency in data collection and analyses.
  • Advocate open and reproducible archaeological research, by increasing the visibility of people who have made substantial contributions to the Open Science movement in archaeology, and supporting related projects and activities.

Services and Activities

The Open Science Interest Group will:

  • Publicize SAA conference sessions that promote the principles and practises of Open Science
  • Advocate, develop and support programs to promote openness in archaeology, such as editorial kite-marking of journal articles to indicate the availability of open data (cf. the Open Science Framework’s badges to acknowledge open practices), as well as increased public involvement in archaeological activities, such as through crowdsourcing data collection and analysis
  • Propose workshops and online seminars to educate, train and inform archaeologists on Open Science principles, practises and tools (eg. Software Carpentry and Data Carpentry workshops)
  • Maintain online resources that provide information about Open Science in archaeology
  • Recognise those who have made substantial contributions to the Open Science movement in archaeology.
  • Contribute to related Open Science efforts such as the Digital Data Interest Group, the Public Archaeology Interest Group, the Working Group on Open Data in Archaeology, Oxford Archaeology’s Open Archaeology Software Suite, and ArcheOS, a GNU/Linux distribution built for archaeological purposes.

Selecting and Rotating A Chairperson

Any SAA member in good standing shall be eligible for nomination as a chairperson. Nominations can be made by any current member of the interest group. Nominees shall be elected by an e-mail vote of all interest group members, and will be held within one month of the SAA annual business meeting.

The Chairperson shall preside at the business meeting of the Group, and shall promote, in every reasonable way, the interests of the Group. The Chairperson shall serve for a term of two years and shall be eligible for re-election. The Chairperson shall represent the Group to the SAA shall appoint committees as required to promote the interests of the Group. Such committees shall serve until the next annual meeting of the Group and may be re-appointed at the discretion of the Chairperson. The Chairperson may provide an annual update of Group activities to members through a newsletter which may be published separately or in The SAA Archaeological Record.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of the Prehistoric Quarry and Early Mines Interest Group is to advance the study of non-industrialized mines, quarries and other forms of extraction sites. As such, the group is concerned with studying the archaeological and geological records of extractive technologies and their remnant manifestations in order to better understand the social, political and economic contexts in which they operated - from the cultural landscapes that quarries and mines have formed to the artifact assemblages associated with them. Unlike mobile and seasonal subsistence resources, mines are fixed on the landscape. Inter-generational knowledge can be assumed for all resources, but especially for mines and quarries in terms of geological, technical and geographical experiences that must have been passed down through the generations.

Like all archaeological sites, mines and quarries are nonrenewable resources in terms of our understanding of the prehistoric past. Mines and quarries, however, are unique in that their on-going use eradicates the record of what has gone before; often these sites (as opposed to other cultural resources) are treated as if they were renewable because of the nature of sites and because there is a lack of awareness of types and quantities of information that these sites represent. As development proceeds, the rate of destruction of prehistoric quarries and mines increases.

Objectives

  1. Standardize nomenclature and terms as they relate to early quarries and mines.
  2. Raise awareness of these non-renewable resources with the goal of improving the potential for preservation and recordation.
  3. Provide a forum for specialists (especially across international and linguistic boundaries) for the exchange of ideas and for debate on current interpretive issues, conservation concerns, and formulation of broad research questions.
  4. Encourage interdisciplinary quarry and mine research among archaeologists, cultural anthropologists, geologists and other communities in the natural and social sciences.
  5. Develop ethical guidelines for the treatment of such sites.
  6. Provide a holistic and humanistic research framework within which to treat this site type, moving beyond technical issues of procurement, production and quantification analyses to the social, economic and political aspects of quarries and mines.
  7. Provide the archaeological community with suggestions for contextualization and treatment of these types of sites by providing expertise on methods of recordation and conservation through a variety of media. Develop written guidelines, specialized quarry registration forms, field visits or other appropriate responses.
  8. Develop a database of prehistoric quarries and mines in order to study their distribution and to raise awareness toward increasing the measure of protection.

Activities

  1. Sponsor SAA symposia at the annual SAA meeting on an annual or biennial basis.
  2. Periodically sponsor field trips in conjunction with the annual meeting, if appropriate.
  3. Publish its own newsletter to extend the forum of debate, which will be produced for group members but can be electronically circulated to the wider SAA membership upon request.
  4. Form an e-mail discussion group, in which members may address the prehistoric quarry and early mines interest group at large (or its officers) with prehistoric quarry concerns.
  5. Provide training workshops to other professionals and/or members of the public in order to increase interest, skills and awareness of prehistoric quarries and early mines in the larger cultural heritage community

Procedure for Selecting and Rotating a Chairperson

A chairperson should be elected on a bi-annual basis from nominations proposed and seconded by the group as a whole. Other officers would be similarly elected (i.e. publications officer/editor, treasurer if needed, outreach officer, etc.).

Newsletter Archives

All past newsletters are in the Interest Group's e-Community (see Resource Library). Members can access any e-Communities to the Interest Groups they have joined.

Mission and Statement of Purpose

The SAA Public Archaeology Interest Group seeks to identify and bring together members of the SAA who share an interest in public archaeology and wish to join others to exchange information and discuss common issues through networking opportunities, particularly at the SAA Annual Meeting. The goal of this interest group is to serve all those interested in public archaeology, archaeology outreach and education, public interpretation and the public understanding of archaeology - those who work at the intersection of the practice of archaeology and the sharing of archaeological information with the public. This interest group will host informal gatherings at the annual meetings and create electronic networks through which members may share their interests, exchange information, and discuss common issues.

Services and Needs Met

The Public Archaeology Interest Group will hold informal gatherings at SAA annual meetings in order for interested SAA members to meet, network, and exchange examples of their own public archaeology activities and resources. These gatherings will provide unique opportunities for all SAA members to interact with others engaged in public archaeology.

This informal group will not compete with the SAA's Public Education Committee, rather this is seen as a complementary group; members of the SAA-PEC may also wish to join this group to share ideas with others, and members of the interest group may wish at some time to join the PEC. This group's organizers do not foresee the undertaking of formal projects, publications, or research activities, such as are undertaken by the PEC. The Public Archaeology Interest Group's focus will be sufficiently broad to encompass the public archaeology interests of all those who work with the general public, tourists, avocational archaeologists, students and teachers as well as those who are required to meet the needs of compliance legislation or work in government or public institutions.

Activities

  1. The Public Archaeology Interest Group will hold annual gatherings at the SAA Annual Meeting.
  2. The group will submit an annual report of activities to the SAA Executive Committee.
  3. The group will establish a means of networking through electronic communications.
  4. The group will maintain a minimum roster of 25 SAA members.
  5. The group will facilitate the use of electronic communications to share activities and other opportunities.
  6. In the case that any of the below activities are undertaken by the Public Archaeology Interest Group, an effort will be made to coordinate such efforts with the SAA-PEC to accomplish mutual objectives.
  7. The group may sponsor symposia, forums, workshops, or special events at the SAA Annual Meetings.
  8. The group may propose positions and/or policy statements for consideration through the SAA website.
  9. The group may propose to the Publication Committee special publications of interest to the members.

Elections and Rotations

A system of rotating chairs will be implemented. Candidates will be solicited by a call for nominations from the floor of the group's gathering at the society's annual meeting. Following open discussion, a general election by enrolled members of the interest group present at the gathering will be called. Through this process a Chair will be elected at each annual meeting, and a Chair-elect will be designated for the following year. In this manner, the position will rotate among interested members.

Finance

The Co-Chairs will donate all time and resources as in-kind contributions. The group does not intend to assess a fee for service. Inclusion on the group's roster will be free-of-charge. The group will request assistance from the society for meeting space at the annual meetings. The costs of any special projects or events will be covered through donations or in-kind contributions.

Statement of Purpose

This interest group focuses on providing support and information to a community of archaeologists interested in refining the research landscape through the development and application of quantitative, computational and statistical methods. All SAA members are eligible to participate in this group.
 

Objectives

  • To provide a forum open to all SAA members to discuss ongoing research and application of quantitative and computational methods using multiple platforms, computing languages and programs (including but not limited to: R, Python, Matlab, GIS, etc.).
  • To develop a network of quantitatively and computationally oriented developers and users, members of SAA.
  • Sponsor the creation of working groups for the development, testing, and discussion of new quantitative and statistical methods in archaeology.
  • To provide a space to form synergistic collaborations between quantitative and computational methods developers and other SAA members.
  • To afford SAA members with mentorship and direction on quantitative, statistical and computational methodology.
  • To support young-professional members interested in growing as quantitative or computational methodologists throughout their career.
  • To sponsor sessions, forums, symposia, workshops, and social and networking events during the annual SAA meeting.
  • To disseminate announcements regarding grants, awards, job notices, and conferences via e-mail and social media.

Activities

  • QUANTARCH will sponsor sessions, forums, symposia, workshops, and social and networking events during the annual SAA meeting.
  • Specifically, QUANTARCH will sponsor “Hack-a-thons” (group coding sessions) and introductory workshops to various quantitative and computational methodology (e.g., R, Geometric Morphometrics) during the annual SAA.
  • Interest group members will meet annually to discuss group related business. This includes election of group chair (or co-chairs) every two meetings.

e-Community

Members can access any e-Communities to the Interest Groups they have joined.

Statement of Purpose

The Queer Archaeology Interest Group will function as a formal network of SAA members who are interested in a broad range of professional research and scholarly issues concerning sexuality and LGBTQI archaeologists and allies interested in supporting their LGBTQI colleagues. It is specifically designed to bring together a group of interested individuals to discuss research on sexualities, practical concerns of members who are part of the LGBTQI and ally community, including issues of gender presentation/identity and collegial/work relationships, and address pedagogical concerns of LGBTQI students.

Objectives

1. Facilitate involvement and understanding of LGBTQI archaeologists in the Society for American Archaeology, including research, stewardship, public and professional education, and the dissemination of knowledge about the past through publication, meetings, and public programming.
 
2. Develop a support network for LGBTQI archaeologists and improve communication between LGBTQI archaeologists and their allies. This includes strengthening connections between junior and senior scholars, members who are familiar with navigating the specific challenges of being LGBTQI archaeologists with those who are not, and discussing how to support LGBTQI students, colleagues, and coworkers as an ally.
 
3. Provide a forum for the discussion of and action on issues of interest to LGBTQI members, allies, and archaeologists interested in studies of sexuality. These issues include, but are not limited to:
 
a. successful entry into and completion of graduate programs
 
b. successful procurement of grants and awards
 
c. issues concerning academic hiring, tenure, and promotion
 
d. issues concerning commercial, government, and non-profit hiring and promotion
 
e. work space concerns of LGBTQI discrimination or harassment
 
f. creating a safe, supportive space for students, colleagues, and coworkers
 
g. navigating practical concerns experienced when conducting research and/or excavation, education, and outreach in professional and academic settings
 
h. support for teaching of sexuality studies and LGBTQI issues in stand-alone classes, as well as better integration of sexuality studies and queer perspectives into introductory courses
 
4. Promote improvement of quality-of-work and quality-of-life issues of particular importance to LGBTQI professionals, scholars, and graduate students.
 

Activities

1. The Queer Archaeology Interest Group will hold annual gatherings at the SAA Annual Meeting.
 
2. The group will submit an annual report of activities to the SAA Executive Committee.
 
3. The group will establish a means of networking through electronic communications that will be used to share activities and other opportunities.
 
4. The group will maintain a minimum roster of 25 SAA members.
 
5. The group may sponsor symposia, forums, workshops, or special events at the SAA Annual Meeting.

6. The group may propose positions and/or policy statements for consideration through the SAA website.
 
7. The group may propose to the Publication Committee special publications of interest to the members.
 

Elections and Rotations

A system of rotating chairs will be implemented. A Chair will be elected on a biennial basis from nominations proposed and seconded by the group. If need arises, other officers will be similarly elected.

The SAA Repatriation Interest Group will facilitate members’ sharing of their experiences, concerns, and information about repatriation. This group will address the need for greater understanding of repatriation and how it affects American archaeology. The interest group will gather at the annual meeting for face to face discussion. It is possible that the group will chose to sponsor a session from time to time.

The SAA Repatriation Interest Group will have no formal link to the SAA Committee on Repatriation. The members who have expressed a desire to form this interest group hope to have it serve as a meeting ground for all members to discuss experiences and share knowledge. It is hoped that by being open to all SAA members this interest group will promote greater understanding of repatriation as an issue. The group will not serve the same purpose as the Repatriation Committee in that it will not be charged with providing advice to the board.

Parkland Students Documenting the Grotto_Large

Photos used with permission by Lenville J. Stelle

Purpose

The primary purpose of the Rock Art Interest Group is to support the development of rock art research within the SAA by:

  1. Encouraging quality publications and field and analytical studies;
  2. Fostering intellectual exchanges between professional researchers, students, site managers, and conservators;
  3. Triggering the interest of students and other professionals in rock art research and management.

Our second goal is to stimulate discourse among all those, both avocational and professional, with an interest in rock art. We are all, in a fundamental sense, students of this most engaging form of material culture. Sharing affords opportunities for learning.

Lastly, we understand that most archaeologically documented rock art sites were or are places of religious significance. We respect the need for conversation regarding how best to ensure the proper interpretation and preservation of these sites.

Activities

SAA members interested in joining or learning more about RAIG are welcome to our yearly meeting held in conjunction with the SAA annual meeting. Check the Annual Meeting program for time and place.

Visiting Rock Art Sites

For those not professionally engaged in rock art studies and perhaps visiting a rock art site for the first time, the National Park Service outlines a common etiquette for visiting rock art sites. Learn how to respect and protect these fragile places.

Newsletters

All past and current newsletters are in the Interest Group's e-Community (see Resource Library). Members can access any e-Communities to the Interest Groups they have joined.

How to Join RAIG

Please note that RAIG membership is free to all current members of the SAA and the process for joining is very easy.

There are two pathways to membership in RAIG.

A. The first and easiest path is to check the box next to “Rock Art Interest Group” on the SAA annual dues payment form. When you submit your dues, you are a member of RAIG.

B. The second is for those SAA members who missed checking off the membership box when they were paying their dues. In this circumstance, simply email  membership@saa.org or call 1.202.559.7382 and ask to have RAIG added to your membership.

RAIG Organization

The members of the Rock Art Interest Group prefer a casual, informal structure. Organizational considerations are limited to the following:

1. The RAIG will convene an annual meeting in conjunction with the SAA’s yearly conference.

2. The business meeting will be conducted in accordance with Robert’s Rules of Order.

3. Those in attendance have the authority to enact policy for the Rock Art Interest Group by virtue of majority decision.

4. A Chair-elect will be selected at each annual meeting. Candidates will be solicited by a call for nominations from the floor. Candidates will be voted on by secret ballot. The Recording Secretary will be charged with responsibility for counting the ballots and reporting to the chair for announcement of the winner. The Chair-elect assumes the position of the Chair at the conclusion of the next annual meeting after training under the current Chair for their year in the elected position. .

5. Two other positions will be filled on the basis of a call for volunteers. These two positions are those of Recording Secretary and Web Manager.

6. RAIG will sponsor at least one symposium of appropriate theme for each annual conference.

7. The Chair will be responsible for the annual Interest group report to the SAA Board as well as email communications to the membership.

Rock Art Interest Group History

1997-2008: Dr. David Whitley, Chair 
2008-2013: Dr. Linea Sundstrom and Dr. Johannes (Jannie) Loubser, Co-Chairs
2013-2017: Lenville Stelle, Chair; 2017: Dr. Mavis Greer, Chair-Elect
2017-2018: Dr. Mavis Greer, Chair; Victoria Roberts, Chair-Elect
2018-2019: Victoria Roberts, Chair; Jerod Roberts, Chair-Elect

Statement of purpose 

The Southeast Asian Archaeology Interest Group’s aim is to provide an international forum for archaeologists and other scholars with a common interest in the archaeology of Southeast Asia. We consider the region of Southeast Asia to include countries in mainland Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam), Island Southeast Asia (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, East Timor). We recognize that parts of southern China, Taiwan, and Near and Remote Oceania had long-standing interactions with Southeast Asia, and welcome scholars with research interests in these domains as well. The aim of our group is to advance the field of Southeast Asian Archaeology by providing an opportunity for scholars to share and promote research on this region, and encourage discussion and intra-regional collaboration, thereby facilitating the growth and development of scholars with an interest in Southeast Asia.

Services or activities

The Southeast Asian Archaeology Interest Group will:

  • Publicize SAA conference sessions, papers, posters, workshops, and symposia related to Southeast Asian archaeology.
  • Sponsor symposia, forums, workshops, or special events at the annual SAA meeting on topics related to Southeast Asian archaeology.
  • Encourage Southeast Asian Archaeology Interest Group members to raise the profile of Southeast Asian archaeology through participation in general or multiregional sessions at the SAA meeting.  
  • Assist with the dissemination of research and publications through the publication of a digital newsletter.
  • Encourage networking through electronic communications, including publicizing conferences, workshops, scholarship/funding opportunities, and job opportunities.
  • Provide a forum for discussion and debate on topics related to archaeological ethics and conservation of archaeological sites in Southeast Asia.
  • Advocate for the conservation of Southeast Asian archaeological heritage
  • Raise awareness about particular issues or concerns related to Southeast Asian Archaeology to the Board.
  • Provide students with information on undergraduate and graduate programs that focus on various aspects of Southeast Asian archaeology, with an ultimate aim of increasing the number of scholars undertaking archaeological research on Southeast Asia.

Statement of Purpose

Teaching is the lifeblood of any discipline, including archaeology. Not only does it ensure the next generation of experts in the field, but it also helps to gaurantee the presence of informed and concerned citizens. As such, the Teaching Archaeology Interest Group (TAIG) focuses on teaching archaeology in Higher Education, whether in a traditional classroom, laboratory or field setting.

Objectives

TAIG will serve three main objectives. First, the group will allow members to share resources, advice, and ideas related to teaching archaeology in higher education. Second, TAIG members will foster discussions focused on pedagogical theory, method, praxis, and ethics as well as the ways in which pedagogy intersects with mentoring, research and engaged scholarship. Finally, TAIG seeks to promote inclusion of the Principles of Archaeological Ethics in archaeology courses and will encourage members to share strategies to fulfill this goal. The Teaching Archaeology Interest Group will not compete with the SAA’s Curriculum Committee or Public Education Committee. Rather, this is conceived of as a complimentary group focused specifically on the unique opportunities and challenges of teaching archaeology in higher education settings, including colleges, universities, and community colleges.

Activities

1. TAIG will organize and promote at least one event at the SAA Annual Meeting to allow members to meet, network, exchange teaching resources and foster

2. The group will develop and maintain a web-based resource sharing system (content will be provided by TAIG ready to post on the SAA website on TAIG’s page). This will allow TAIG members to share syllabi, course materials, suggestions for media materials, and other resources useful for teaching archaeology courses in higher education. 

3. The group will submit an annual report of activities to the SAA Executive Committee. 

4. The group will maintain a minimum roster of 25 members.

Newsletter Archives

All past and current newsletters are in the Interest Group's e-Community (see Resource Library). Members can access any e-Communities to the Interest Groups they have joined.

Statement of Purpose

The Women in Archaeology Interest Group will function as a formal network of SAA members who are interested in a broad range of professional research, and scholarly issues of concern to women archaeologists.

Objectives

  1. Foster the involvement of women in all activities promoted by the Society for American Archaeology, including research, stewardship, public and professional education, and the dissemination of knowledge about ancient societies and cultures through publication, meetings, and public programming.
  2. Improve contacts among women archaeologists. This includes facilitating contacts between junior and senior scholars and augmenting the mentoring of female graduate students.
  3. Provide a broader forum for the discussion of and action on issues of interest to COSWA, women in archaeology, and archaeologists interested in gender studies. These issues include, but are not limited to:
    • successful entry into and completion of graduate programs
    • successful procurement of grants and awards
    • gender equity in hiring, tenure, promotion, and salary decisions
    • workplace "climate" issues, including gender-based harassment and discrimination
    • support for the teaching of gender and feminist issues in stand-alone courses as well as the integration of gendered and feminist perspectives into general introductory, method & theory, and culture-history courses
  4. Promote improvement in quality-of-work and quality-of-life issues of particular importance to women professionals and women graduate students.

Statement of Purpose

The Zooarchaeology Interest Group (ZIG) is one of ten interest groups offered to SAA members. ZIG focuses primarily on disseminating information and fostering a community in which members interested in zooarchaeology and related disciplines can participate. Regardless of academic or professional standing (Bachelor’s, Master’s, Doctorate, Professor, RPA, etc.), all members are invited to partake and network.

Objectives

  1. To promote the study, understanding, and importance of zooarchaeology and its numerous sub-disciplines.
  2. To intellectually discuss active research projects, publications, and scholarly issues.
  3. To support young-professional members by providing mentors and guidance throughout their career.
  4. To provide an open space and access for members to synergize new zooarchaeological methods, technologies, databases, and ideas.
  5. To serve as a voice and point of contact for SAA members in order to increase communication and awareness of current news and announcements.
  6. To integrate numerous disciplines beyond zooarchaeology with the intention of advocating transdisciplinary research.
  7. To sponsor sessions, forums, symposia, workshops, and social and networking events during the annual SAA meeting.
  8. To collaborate with other zooarchaeology group such as the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ), the Worked Bone Research Group (WBRG), Taphonomy Working Group (TWG), Stable Isotopes in Zooarchaeology Working Group (SIZWG), and other active working groups.
  9. To disseminate announcements regarding grants, awards, job notices, and conferences via E-mail, Facebook, the Zooarch Listserv, and related media.
  10. To include professional archaeologists, museum curators, and public interest as well as academics in ZIG related activities and discussions

Activities

ZIG sponsored a symposium entitled In the Service of a Greater Good: Broader Applications of Zooarchaeology in the Era of Interdisciplinary Research at the 2018 Annual Meeting. This session looks at applying zooarchaeology to address archaeological and anthropological questions beyond those focused on animal behavior and human-animal interactions in the past. 

Abstract In the pursuit of studying animal behavior and human-animal interactions in the past, zooarchaeologists have developed and refined a range of analytical and methodological techniques intended to extract meaning from animal remains found in archaeological sites. Zooarchaeology, however, is only one in a range of possible avenues of research into the past. Ironically, in the era of inter-disciplinary research, methodological and epistemological advances made by various archaeological sub-disciplines, including zooarchaeology, are rarely combined and discussed collectively, as specialists overwhelmingly interact with peers in their own sub-disciplines. In this session, we place zooarchaeology at the center of our anthropological and archaeological milieu to examine how zooarchaeological techniques and approaches can be made relevant beyond more immediate reconstructions of human-animal interactions. In this session, we will discuss zooarchaeology not as an end unto itself, but as the means to reach a greater end. Several issues to consider include, but are not limited to:
1.    Combining and reconciling zooarchaeological approaches with other archaeological sub-disciplines and their methodologies to produce more holistic and compelling narratives of the past. 2.    Deploying zooarchaeological analyses as independent tests of inferences made based on other lines of evidence like ceramics, lithics, metals, architecture, botanical remains, stable isotopes, etc. 3.    Using our understanding of human-animal interactions and behavioral and physiological characteristics of various animal species as the basis of investigations into settlement patterns, site occupation intensities, and patterns of mobility and migration. 4.    Using taphonomic studies of animal remains to assess greater site formation processes.

SAA Requirements

The Zooarchaeology Interest Group is sponsored by the Society for American Archaeology (SAA); to officially join our group you, must be a SAA member. Becoming a ZIG member does not require annual dues or additional fees. Co-chairs are elected at each annual meeting involving all ZIG members present at the business meeting.
 

Facebook

The Zooarchaeology Interest Group has an active and engaging Facebook group page that is open to the public. This page is intended as a forum for archaeologists interested in all aspects of zooarchaeology and bone technology. News items and stories shared to the page should be specific to zooarchaeology in content and be of interest to members of this group. We also encourage the sharing of zooarchaeology-specific jobs, upcoming conferences, publications, and other news.

The Society for American Archaeology (“SAA”) encourages all of its members to participate in public discussions through social networking. At the same time, SAA expects that its members will make statements that are in the best interests of SAA and will not engage in any inappropriate statements or statements which would be detrimental to SAA as a whole. SAA retains the right, under its bylaws and policies, to take disciplinary actions against any member it determines is acting contrary to SAA’s interests.

While many of the individuals participating in this group are members of the Society for American Archaeology, the statements, views and opinions of individuals in this group are their own and are not those of SAA. As such, participants in this group acknowledge and agree that SAA shall not be responsible for any statements, content or other communication posted or disseminated through this group.

Finances

The Zooarchaeology Interest Group does not offer fellowships, grants, or awards. We, however, encourage eligible members to apply for the SAA sponsored Dienje Kenyon Memorial Fellowship.