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 SAA Journal Style Guide Minimize

1.0 Editorial Policy

American Antiquity is a quarterly journal that publishes original papers on the archaeology of the New World and on archaeological method, theory, and practice worldwide. Because the Society for American Archaeology supports another journal dedicated specifically to the archaeology of Latin America (see below), American Antiquity publishes papers on Latin American archaeology only if they address broad methodological, theoretical, or comparative issues that extend beyond Latin America. Authors submit manuscripts to the editor for consideration as ARTICLES, REPORTS, COMMENTS, or FORUM essays. BOOK REVIEW ESSAYS, REVIEWS and BOOK NOTES are solicited by the journal's associate editor for this section; volunteered manuscripts for this section are rarely accepted. For further information, contributors should contact the associate editor listed in the most recent issue of the journal. OBITUARIES are published in The SAA Archaeological Record.

Latin American Antiquity is a quarterly journal that publishes original papers on the archaeology, prehistory, and ethnohistory of Latin America—Mesoamerica, Central America, and South America—together with culturally affiliated adjacent regions. The journal publishes contributions in method and theory, field research, and analysis that use a Latin American database. REVIEWS and BOOK NOTES are solicited by the associate editor for that section and volunteered manuscripts are rarely accepted. Contributors should contact the associate editor listed in the most recent issue of the journal. Except where circumstances dictate otherwise, all submissions should be in English or Spanish.

In both journals, the categorization of a manuscript as an ARTICLE or a REPORT is left to the editors' discretion. ARTICLES are usually longer than REPORTS and address topics of major importance in a way that reaches out to a broad audience of professional archaeologists and the informed public. REPORTS, on the other hand, may be more technical, address a specific topic, and be of primary interest to relatively fewer readers. COMMENTS correct major errors of fact or provide new information directly relevant to a paper published previously in either journal; differences of interpretation or opinion may accompany such demonstrations but may not be the primary motivating factor for a COMMENT. Those whose work is being commented on are given the opportunity to reply to the specific points raised in the COMMENT. The COMMENT and accompanying reply are usually published together, at which time, the exchange ends. A FORUM contribution is an essay of opinion on current issues or topics of immediate significance to a broad audience.

The editors reserve the right to reject (with or without peer review), or return for revision, any material submitted on the grounds of inappropriate subject matter for the scope of the journals, or on the grounds of poor quality or of excessive length. Manuscripts may also be returned for reformatting when they do not comply with the journals' style provisions.

Both journals adhere to the 1973 American Anthropological Association statement on gender language, which discourages the employment of male third-person pronouns and the use of generic "man" in reference to non-sex-specific semantic categories. More comprehensive terms (e.g., "one," "person," "humans," "humankind," "they"), in grammatically correct constructions, are preferred as a matter of equity.

Before a manuscript can be published in either journal, the author must submit written permission from anyone whose unpublished works (e.g., papers presented at meetings, and personal communications) are cited or used in the paper in question. (Faxes of such permissions, or e-mails originating from the person whose permission is needed, will be adequate proof.) For multiauthored papers, the communicating author must submit written evidence that all coauthors are willing to release for publication the draft accepted by the journal editor.

Neither journal will knowingly publish manuscripts that rely on archaeological, ethnographic, or historical period objects that have been obtained without systematic descriptions of their context; that have been recovered in such a manner as to cause the unscientific destruction of sites or monuments; or that have been exported in violation of the national laws of their country of origin. It is the author’s responsibility to provide justification for the publication of information that might be in conflict with this policy and the editors’ and reviewers’ responsibility to determine the validity of the justification. As noted in SAA’s Ethical Principle No. 3, the Society strives to balance the goal of not adding monetary value to such objects with the goal of generating knowledge about the past and the archaeological record.

Neither journal pays authors for manuscripts, nor do they provide manuscript retyping, copying, preparation of illustrations, abstracting, translations, or other such services, which are the responsibility of the author.

2.0 Information for Authors

2.1 Editors' Responsibilities

Manuscripts are evaluated by the editors in consultation with peer referees, or by the associate editors for REVIEWS and BOOK NOTES, as appropriate. Authors may suggest potential reviewers; the editors, however, are not bound by these suggestions. Referees' substantive evaluations are solicited with editorial guarantees of anonymity. Referees may, however, waive anonymity. Editors have responsibility for all final decisions regarding manuscripts. The evaluation process takes a minimum of two to three months. Authors are notified as soon as a decision is reached to accept or reject a manuscript. Acceptance may be offered on the condition that revisions be undertaken. Rejection may be outright or with the possibility of reconsideration after revision, which may entail a new round of evaluations.

2.2 Authors' Responsibilities

Authors, and not the Society for American Archaeology, are responsible for the content of their papers, for the accuracy of quotations and their correct attribution, for the legal right to publish any material submitted and the appropriate handling of issues of coauthorship, and for submitting their manuscripts in proper form for publication. Authors bear the responsibility for securing written permission, when necessary, for figures, tabular materials, or any other material protected by U.S. or international copyright laws. As noted above in section 1.0, the author must submit written permission from anyone whose unpublished works are cited or used. Evidence of such permission must accompany a final submission. Attribution for figures, etc., should be given with the manuscript, preferably in the caption for each figure. A manuscript submitted to either journal must not be under consideration by any other journal or publication medium at the same time, or have been published elsewhere. After a manuscript has been accepted, and before it is published, the author or authors (in cases where papers are coauthored or jointly authored) will be asked to sign copyright-release forms, which must be received before actual publication takes place. Final submission of a manuscript automatically grants the Society the right to use any figure therein on the cover of the number of the journal in which it appears.

2.3 Submissions

All Manuscripts (text, tables, and figures) must be submitted electronically through Editorial Manager®. The system can be accessed at http://www.editorialmanager.com/aq for American Antiquity, http://www.editorialmanager.com/laq for Latin American Antiquity. Publications for review should be sent—normally by the publisher—to the associate editor for REVIEWS and BOOK NOTES (for either American Antiquity or Latin American Antiquity). Addresses for the associate editors for REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTES appear on the inside front cover of the most recent issue of each journal.

2.4 Page Proofs

Page proofs for ARTICLES, REPORTS, COMMENTS, and FORUM contributions are sent to the senior author of a manuscript or to the senior author's designee, who checks them for typographical errors. Authors should mark their changes clearly in red ink. Proofs are typically sent seven weeks prior to the targeted publication date. No text may be rewritten at this stage, but editorial errors may be corrected, and significant new data or an absolutely essential correction sometimes may be added. All changes and additions by an author are suggestions only; they may be disregarded at the discretion of the editors. Corrected page proofs should be read and returned to the managing editor within 48 hours of receipt by authors, preferably via high-quality fax or an express mail service. Later returns may be too late to be considered. Revised proofs with corrections shown are not sent to authors. Proofs for book reviews are not sent to the review author but are corrected in-house.

2.5 Reprints

Copies of the journal and reprints are not distributed to authors free of charge. Reprint order forms are mailed directly to the senior author or designee (see above) along with the authors' copies of the page proofs and are handled directly by the journal printer. If reprints are desired, the form should be completed immediately and returned to the printer at the address on the form. Payment in U.S. currency must accompany the reprint order form.


3.1 Preparing the Manuscript

Upload all files, including text, tables, figures, and captions, at the following urls: http://www.editorialmanager.com/aq for American Antiquity, http://www.editorialmanager.com/laq for Latin American Antiquity.

 

3.2 Sections of the Manuscript

Each of the following sections of the manuscript should be on a separate page or should start a new page. Arrange the parts of the manuscript in the following order (see below for more information on each section):

Title page (separate page, number as page 1)
English abstract (separate page)
Spanish abstract (separate page; in reverse order if paper is written in Spanish; see below)
Text (begin new page)
Acknowledgments (should immediately follow end of text)
Appendix or appendixes (begin new page; used in rare cases only)
References Cited (begin new page)
Notes (begin new page)
Figure captions (new page, captions listed sequentially, not paginated)
Figures
Tables (separate page for each)

Pages are numbered consecutively through notes only. Examples for form of title and abstract pages are given here.

3.2.1 Title page

 

Prepare as in the following example:

THE NUMIC SPREAD: A COMPUTER SIMULATION

(center, all caps)

David A. Young and Robert L. Bettinger

(center halfway down page, initial caps only)

DO NOT CITE IN ANY CONTEXT WITHOUT PERMISSION OF THE AUTHORS)

(center, several spaces above author's or authors' affiliation)

David A. Young, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA 94550 (e-mail address may be included in parentheses)
Robert L. Bettinger, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

(the complete mailing addresses for each author should be on separate lines, except authors at the same institution should combine their address). E-mail address in parentheses may follow the zip code.

3.2.2 Abstract

 

An abstract in English and in Spanish must accompany all ARTICLES (including historical pieces such as autobiographies and biographies), REPORTS, COMMENTS, and FORUM contributions. The abstract should not exceed 200 words in length, although it is usually preferable that the "second" abstract (i.e., the one written in the language in which the paper is not written) be a somewhat expanded version. In American Antiquity the second abstract may be in French by permission of the editor, for example in the case where the manuscript deals with eastern Canada.

Given the many places that journal contributions are indexed and abstracted, as well as the fact that most readers judge whether to read an article from the abstract, the abstract may well be the most important part of the paper. It should be a factual summary of the contents and conclusions of the paper, refer to new information that is being presented, and indicate its relevance. The abstract should not be an introduction to the paper or an outline of it with each section being reduced into a sentence. Avoid the passive voice. See section 3.11 for more information.

 

3.3 Textual Elements

3.3.1 Headings

 

Primary heads should be centered, in bold, with principal words capitalized (excluding articles, prepositions, and conjunctions less than five letters long), and two lines of space above and below. Do not use "INTRODUCTION" or "ABSTRACT" as headings. Secondary heads should be typed flush left and set in italics, using initial capital letters on principal words, with a single line of space above and below. Tertiary heads should be typed as part of the paragraph, with a paragraph indentation, the head italicized, capital letters on significant words, followed by a period, and followed by the beginning of the text of the paragraph. Example: "Acknowledgments. Fieldwork since 1986 has been supported by National Science Foundation grant…"

Note that References Cited and Notes are primary-level headings.

3.3.2 Numbers

 

When cardinal numbers are used, all numbers above nine should be expressed in Arabic numerals (except as noted below); spell out numbers zero through nine. On a paragraph-by-paragraph basis, when the majority of numbers is above nine, the numbers zero through nine are often expressed numerically as well. Use commas to indicate places in Arabic numerals: e.g., 5,000; 10,000; 240,000; 1,000,000. Exceptions to these general rules are as follows:

1. Spell out any number that begins a sentence. Examples: Twelve of the vessels (or can be rephrased as "A total of 12 vessels was analyzed…") or "Five hundred years ago…"

2. Spell out numbers that are used in a general sense in the text. Example: "Several hundred sherds were recovered…"

Ordinal numbers are always spelled out in text. Examples: "During the seventh cycle," "In the eighteenth century," "In the fiftieth percentile." In the References Cited section, use ordinal numbers to indicate at which annual meeting a paper was presented. Example: "Paper presented at the 54th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology…"

Dates should be expressed as follows: 250 years; on October 3, 1952 (but see subsection 3.9.12 on citation of newspapers); in the nineteenth century (not 19th); during the 1970s (not 1970's); 1921–1925 (not 1921–5 or 1921–25). (See subsection 3.3.5 on the expression of radiometric dates.)

Official site numbers should be included with the site names whenever possible. Smithsonian Trinomial System (STS) site numbers are preferred (e.g., 23SG5); do not use hyphens between components of the trinomial and use only capital letters for the county designation. Where the STS is not employed use the accepted numbering system for that region.

3.3.3 Metric measurements

 

All measurements of distance, area, volume, and weight should be expressed in the metric system unless reporting an older excavation conducted in the English system, in which case the English equivalent should follow the metric in parentheses (abbreviated without a period; e.g., 8 in). Thus, centimeters, meters, kilometers, liters, grams, and hectares are used, not inches, feet, gallons, acres, miles. The metric units are abbreviated without periods; liters, however, is not abbreviated to avoid confusion with the Arabic numeral "1." Examples: 18 cm, 3 m, 12 km, 28 ha, 6 m2, 2 liters. Leave a space between the number and the abbreviation. All measurements should be expressed with Arabic numerals and abbreviated except when they are used nonspecifically, appear at the beginning of a sentence, or as noted above. Examples: "Several cubic meters of fill," "Three kilometers from the site." A metric conversion table can be found in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed.

3.3.4 Mathematical and statistical copy

 

Mathematical copy should be used sparingly. For displayed equations, allow ample space above and below the equation (setting it off from the text) and between elements of the equation or formula (around equal signs, for example). Except for commonly accepted Greek symbols, letters that represent mathematical variables should be italicized. All symbols that might be ambiguous or confusing to the editorial staff should be noted in the left-hand margin and identified by the name of the symbol. Example: For "x," indicate whether a lowercase Greek chi, a multiplication sign, or a variable is intended; or better, format as χ. For "B," indicate whether a capitalized BEE or a Greek Beta is meant; or better, format as β. Use p (for probability), s (for sample standard deviation), σ (for population standard deviation), μ (for population mean), χ2 (for Chi-squared), α for the rejection region (or probability of a Type I error in inductive statistical tests); etc.

Statistical expressions should be typed as follows:

F = 13.67; df = 1, 24; p < .05

Never use leading zeros (e.g., 0.05) in text, figures, or tables. Leave one space around = or ≠ signs.

3.3.5 Radiometric ages and dates

 

In all instances where radiocarbon dates are reported for the first time the following conventions must be employed. However, if the date was first published elsewhere, it is only necessary to cite that reference (with page number[s]).

The uncalibrated radiocarbon age must be given in the first direct citation. Uncalibrated radiocarbon ages must (1) be based on the 5,568-year 14C half-life (divide radiocarbon ages based on the 5,730-year half-life by 1.03); (2) be expressed as years—do not convert to radiocarbon years A.D./B.C.; (3) be followed by the 1-sigma (σ) standard error as given by the laboratory; (4) include the sample identification number given by the laboratory (use conventions established for laboratory abbreviations used in the journal Radiocarbon); (5) state what material was dated (e.g., wood, charcoal, corn cob, bone apatite); and (6) state whether the date has been corrected for isotopic fractionation. If a 13C value was given by the laboratory, then this correction has been made. The best way to indicate this is to provide the 13C value. Example: 3680 ± 60 (Pts-3964; wood charcoal; δ13C = -23.8‰).

Calibrated dates must always be identified as such, using the conventions cal A.D. or cal B.C. (note the placement of cal and the punctuation). Authors must identify the particular calibration used, must state whether the calibration is made for 1 or 2σ (2 preferred), and present the calibrated age as a range of calendar age (or ranges where more than one is possible). If there is more than one possible range of calendar age, and the calibration program assigns probabilities to each, these must be cited. Example: For the date 3680 ± 60 the two possible calibrated age ranges are 2279–2232 cal B.C. (p = .05) and 2209–1905 cal B.C. (p = .95). (Calibrated at 2s with the program CALIB 3.2 [Stuiver and Reimer 1993; Stuiver et al. 1998].) If many calibrated dates are included in a manuscript, then presentation in the form of a table is advised (see, for example, Table 2 in Little, American Antiquity 67:112).

Unlike other four-digit numbers, radiocarbon ages with four digits do not have a comma. Radiocarbon ages with five digits do have a comma.

The Spanish equivalents for these conventions are illustrated in the following examples (note carefully the placement of the letters in relation to the numbers): for 3000 B.P., use 3000 a.P.; for 500 cal B.C., use 500 cal a.C.; and for cal A.D. 1200, use 1200 cal d.C.

The atomic weight of an isotope is indicated as a superscript preceding the atomic symbol: 14C, not C-14 or C14.

3.3.6 Quotations

 

Quoted matter of less than four typed lines in length should be run into the text, between (double) quotation marks. Use single quotation marks only when it is necessary to have quotation marks within a quotation. After the quotation, cite author, year of publication, and page number(s) in parentheses. Example: Mental life, as such, cannot be grasped, but we can grasp the intention through the intentional product, "the objective and identical correlate in which mental life surpasses itself" (Ricoeur 1981:50).

Quoted matter that runs to four or more typed lines should be set off from the text as a block quote and double spaced, with two lines of space above and below. Example:

Most of the area is true savannah, the most difficult vegetation for the primitive farmer to cope with, and also the rains in general are undependable. …The only incentive for heavy settlement would be on the basis of irrigation agriculture, and … [at Zempoala] this incentive was presented [Sanders 1953:76].

Note: Brackets are used instead of parentheses within the excerpt for author-added material and for the citation. When emphasis is added or was already in the original material, the source of the emphasis should be noted after the citation, within the brackets. Example: [Sanders 1953:76; emphasis added] or [Sanders 1953:76; emphasis in original]. When a translation of material is made, it should follow the quotation, with translator noted. Example: [translation by Rowe (1980:15)] or [translation by author]. Refer to The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed., Chapter 10, for more information on quotations and for the correct use of ellipsis points. Leading ellipses are rarely necessary.

3.3.7 Spelling

 

The authority for spelling in both journals is Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed. For anything not in this work, consult Webster's Third New International Dictionary (unabridged). Use American English spellings (except in quotations and references and in referring to an institution when it is imperative to preserve the original spelling). When more than one spelling is offered for a word, use the first spelling listed, e.g., labeled, not labelled; archaeology, not archeology; artifact, not artefact; acknowledgments, not acknowledgements. Preferred spellings for some words commonly used in archaeological parlance include: fieldwork, rockshelter, ear spool, posthole, post mold, plow zone, use life, ball court, ground stone, pithouse, pit structure, room block, field house, X-ray (noun), x-ray (verb), cross section (noun), cross-section (verb). Spell out percent, except in tables, where % should be used (we put this in italics as it is the most common error encountered).

The primary Spanish dictionary used by both journals is the Vox New College Spanish and English Dictionary, which contains many more of the words used in archaeological writing than do the other commonly available Spanish-English dictionaries. It also features special sections on Spanish grammatical conventions (e.g., capitalization, numerals, syntax). For authors writing in Spanish, the authoritative work is the latest edition of Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.

3.3.8 Italics

 

Words in languages other than the primary language in which the manuscript is written are underlined or italicized in the manuscript. Use standard orthographies, including diacritical marks, and explain unusual symbols (also see subsection 3.3.12 on accents below). Generic, specific, and varietal names are italicized: e.g., Homo sapiens sapiens, Spondylus sp. All other taxonomic designations are printed in roman type. Titles of books, journals, poems, and other literary works are italicized when mentioned in the text; article titles mentioned in the text are in roman type, set off by quotation marks. Letters that represent mathematical variables are italicized (see subsection 3.3.4 above). Foreign words and phrases in common use, or anglicized, should not be italicized. Consult Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed.: Any word or phrase that appears in the main section of the dictionary should not be italicized (e.g., in situ, a priori, et al., vis-à-vis, milpa); any word that appears at the end of the dictionary in the section on "Foreign Words and Phrases" should be italicized (e.g., anno mundi, caveat lector).

3.3.9 Capitalization

 

For capitalization of nonarchaeological terms, consult The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition, Chapter 7. Capitalize the names of specific archaeological and geographical areas. Examples: Mesoamerica, Lowland Maya, Gulf Coast, the Southwest, the Midwest. Directional, topographical, and general geographic terms are in lowercase unless they are derived from proper names of political, ethnic, or taxonomic entities. Examples: southwestern, north coast of Peru, central Mexico; but Mesoamerican region, Maya Lowlands, Sonoran Desert, Eastern Woodlands.

Capitalize taxonomic names of generic and higher rank. Examples: order Artiodactyla, family Bovidae, genus Bison, Pinus ponderosa. Names of mountains, rivers, oceans, and so forth are capitalized, along with the generic terms—such as lake, mountain, river, valley—when used as part of a name. When a generic term is used descriptively rather than as part of the name, when used alone, or when plural, it is lowercased. Examples: the Mississippi River, the valley of the Mississippi, the Mississippi River valley, the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, but Lakes Michigan and Huron.

Capitalize proper names, including Lower, Middle, Early, and Late when they are part of the name, of chronological, cultural, and geological divisions, but give taxonomic division names and restrictive modifiers in lowercase. Examples: Upper Paleolithic period, late Holocene, Classic period, Koster site, Anasazi (better: prehispanic Pueblo) culture, Upper Republican aspect, Olmec horizon, Riverton phase, Denali complex. Capitalize the names of archaeological classes, but place generic terms in lowercase. Examples: Clovis point, Cody knives, Hardin Barbed point, Salado polychromes (which include types Gila Polychrome, Tonto Polychrome, etc.).

3.3.10 Hyphenation

 

For rules governing hyphenation of nonarchaeological compound words, consult Table 6.1 in The Chicago Manual of Style, or Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed. Compounds are spelled without hyphens if they can be considered permanent combinations. Examples: rockshelter, preceramic, Postclassic, precolumbian, Paleoindian, preconquest; but pre-Basketmaker, mid-Pleistocene, etc. Prefixes in common use are not hyphenated. Examples: noncultural, reanalyze, infrastructure, intercommunity, intrasite. Hyphenate descriptive terms that are combinations of words including a preposition. Examples: red-on-buff pottery, 1-x-1-m unit. Hyphenate fractions when they are spelled out. Examples: one-third, seven-tenths. A general rule is to hyphenate paired words serving an adjectival function (termed compound modifiers). Examples: obsidian-hydration dating, heat-treated silicates, two-story pueblo, low-ranked resource but high return rate; 5-m depth but depth of 5 m. Never hyphenate a combination of an adverb ending in -ly plus a participle or adjective, e.g., poorly developed argument. Interdisciplinary research uses terminology and phrase constructions borrowed from a parent discipline such as isotope chemistry. If common usage in a parent discipline dictates leaving compound modifiers (such as “stable isotope ratio” or “heavy mineral analysis”) open, we will normally follow that usage.

3.3.11 Abbreviations

 

Abbreviations are used infrequently in the journals. Exceptions include acronyms for long titles of agencies, institutions, etc., which will be mentioned frequently in the text (they are always introduced following the full name). Examples: Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH). Metric units are given in abbreviated form when they follow numbers. Examples: 7 km, 2,000 m asl, 23 cm. See subsection 3.3.5 for information on placement of abbreviations pertinent to dates. A few other abbreviations are permitted. Examples: et al., e.g., i.e., ca., cf. ("compare against"; does not mean "see"), vs. (not versus), rev. ed., 3 vols. Never use ibid. or op. cit.; follow the conventions for in-text citations given in section 3.4. Always spell out percent except in tables. “Figure” is always spelled out, never abbreviated.

3.3.12 Accents

 

For both journals, include all common accents for French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, etc., in the text and in the References Cited section. Be sure the accents are clearly marked, accurate, and consistent. Pay particular attention to proper names and titles of works (the rules of placement of accents in Spanish hold for all place names in Spanish, even on words that were hispanicized from other languages such as Nahuatl or Mayan, except for words that have accepted English spellings). Examples: Teotihuacan, Chichén Itzá, Copán, Kaminaljuyú. Foreign book titles set in all capital letters will not display accents, except for letters such as Ñ in Spanish. However, because the titles in the References Cited section of the journals are set with initial capitals only, the author is responsible for adding accents to a title if accents are used through the book or article (even if accents do not appear in the all-capitals title). Never add accents to initial capitals-only titles that do not have them in the original.

 

3.4 In-Text Reference Citations

There are two different formats used for in-text citations in the journals. REVIEWS and BOOK NOTES follow the format given in section 3.5; ARTICLES, REPORTS, COMMENTS, FORUM contributions and BOOK REVIEW ESSAYS use the style described immediately below.

In-text year citations always immediately follow the name(s) of the author(s). All of the examples make use of parentheses in their ordinary format. However, when reference citations are used in textual material set off in parentheses, the parentheses in the citations convert to brackets. Example: (e.g., Shapere [1985] on the constitution of "observations" in physics, and Kosso [1989] on observation in science generally). For examples of citations in quoted material see subsection 3.3.6 above.

3.4.1 Simple citation

 

(Wylie 1991) or Wylie (1991)

3.4.2 Two authors

 

(Lipe and Varien 1999) or Lipe and Varien (1999)

3.4.3 Three or more authors

 

(Cobean et al. 1991) or Cobean et al. (1991)

Note: Use of "et al." is limited to in-text citations. The only time all names should be listed for a paper with three or more authors in a text citation is when a person is senior author of more than one jointly authored item in the same year. Example: Barnosky, Anderson, and Bartlein (1987) and Barnosky, Grimm, and Wright (1987) would appear as shown, not as Barnosky et al. (1987a, 1987b). Whereas the use of et al. is permissible in in-text citations, in the References Cited section all names must be listed following the senior author's name.

3.4.4 Several authors cited in one place or several references by same author

 

(Ashmore 1986; Coe 1965; de Montmollin 1988; Fox 1987, 1991; Freidel 1986; Freidel and Schele 1986; Freidel et al. 1990)

Note: Use semicolons to separate works by different authors and commas to separate distinct, chronologically ordered works by the same author. References are always ordered alphabetically within strings by author. Note that de Montmollin is alphabetized here under "d," as the name would also be alphabetized in the References Cited section.

3.4.5 Two or more references by same author or authors in same year

 

(Jones and Brown 1972a, 1972b; Wilson 1973c) or Jones and Brown (1972a, 1972b) and Wilson (1973c)

Note: When an individual or individuals have both authored and edited (or compiled) publications with the same date, and both are cited, the edited (or compiled) volume is to be distinguished in citation as follows. Example: (Adams, ed. 1977) or Adams (ed. 1977). Edited (or compiled) volumes are so identified in the text only when potential ambiguity occurs. The authored publication precedes the edited (or compiled) one in both citation and reference. Example: (Flannery 1976; Flannery, ed. 1976) or Flannery (1976) and Flannery (ed. 1976).

3.4.6 Two authors, same surname, same year published

(J. Smith 1982; N. Smith 1982) or J. Smith (1982) and N. Smith (1982)

 

3.4.7 Two authors, same surname, different years published

(Smith 1982; Smith 1987) or Smith (1982), Smith (1987)

 

3.4.8 Government agency, company, or similar entity as author

(United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service [USDA, SCS] 1975)

Note: State the complete name of the agency, company, etc., as with any other citation, but if the citation will occur more than once in the text, then abbreviate names to their commonly accepted acronyms and place in brackets. Thereafter when mentioned in the text the citation will be, e.g., (USDA, SCS 1975) or USDA, SCS (1975).

 

3.4.9 Citation with pages, figures, or tables specified

(Smith 1977:3), (Jones and Wilson 1971:Figure 2), (Johnson et al. 1970:Table 1), (Taylor 1964:23, 72–78) or Smith (1977:3), Jones and Wilson (1971:Figure 2), Brown (1968:533–534), Johnson et al. (1970:Table 1), Taylor (1964:23, 72–78)

Note: Use a colon to separate date of publication from additional information. There should be no space between the colon and additional information. Page numbers must always be given when direct quotations are used in the text, when other authors' ideas are directly paraphrased, or when specific ideas or data are referenced from a long text. Always use full page numbers in a citation, e.g., 312–315, not 312–15. Never use ff. or passim (however, it is permissible to use "ff." as an abbreviation for folios). Spell out and capitalize such words as Figure, Table, Plate, etc. If citing a figure, table, etc., do not include the page number on which it occurs unless additional, separate textual information from that page is being cited as well.

 

3.4.10 Multivolume set

(Thwaites 1896--1901:17:232--236, 19:197) or Thwaites (1896--1901:17:232--236, 19:197)

Note: In this example, "17" and "19" refer to the volume numbers. Volume number should be cited exactly as it appears in the series, i.e., in Roman numerals or in Arabic numerals.

 

3.4.11 Forthcoming book or article in journal issue in press

(Kuttruff 1992) or Kuttruff (1992)

Note: Everything has a date. Never use "n.d." or "in press" with in-text citations. Give date either of manuscript completion (in the case of a manuscript that is "on file" somewhere), or of manuscript submission or anticipated publication date for an item that has been accepted for publication. Also see subsection 3.9.20 below.

3.4.12 No author specified

Cite the group or agency issuing the report or the publisher.

(United Nations 1963), (Committee on Ethics 1977), or United Nations (1963), Committee on Ethics (1977)

Note: Also see subsection 3.9.6 below.

3.4.13 Primary-source materials (e.g., unpublished archival materials including administrative records, letters, etc.)

Citations for much primary-source material will be archive specific, so that it is impossible to devise a rote formula for citation. It is important to include the name of the archive, title of the work (if named), nature of the material (e.g., letter [optional], collection name, identification number (legajo, fascicle, folio, etc.), date (if known), and geographic location of material. Consider the following examples:

(Archivo General de la Nación, Lima [AGN], Juzgado de Aguas 3.3.7.23, f. 3v); note that subsequent citations would use only the acronym AGN and the shortened "Aguas" (e.g., AGN, Aguas 3.3.4.39, 3.3.9.9)

(Archivo General de Indias, Seville [AGI], Papeles de Cuba, legajo 2365, f. 345); subsequent citation = (AGI, Cuba, legajo 2365, f. 523)

(McHenry County Courthouse, Woodstock, Illinois [MCC] 1880: Deed Book [DB] 1:5); subsequent citation = (MCC 1890:DB 2:10)

(Raimond Quenel, Etienne Govreau, and Marie Louise Quenel to de Gruys Verloins, sale of property, 8 February 1752, Kaskaskia Manuscripts [KM], Office of Randolph County Clerk, Chester, Illinois); subsequent citation = (KM 52:2:8:1)

(F. Boas to E. B. Howard, letter, 9 May 1935, Boas Papers, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia)

Note: Primary-source citations appear only in the text and are not duplicated in the References Cited section. If you are citing primary-source material from a published source, you must follow conventional citation rules in the text and in the References Cited. It is preferable to cite Latin American codices by the editor of the particular edition of the codex used (unless the actual document was consulted), e.g., (Dibble 1980) for the sixteenth-century Codice Xolotl. See corresponding example in subsection 3.9.3.

3.4.14 Earlier edition specified

In cases where many years separate the original publication of an item and a reprinted edition, and where it is important to the author's argument to indicate the use of period sources, the original date of publication should be placed in brackets following citation, in usual fashion, of the reprint edition.

(Cobo 1956:169 [1653])

(Russell and Erwin 1980 [1865])

Note: See corresponding examples in subsection 3.9.5.

3.4.15 Newspapers

(Weekly Missouri Courier [WMC], 7 July 1838:page numbers [if available])

Note: After first mention, simply use WMC with date and page. Also see subsection 3.9.12.

3.4.16 Personal communication, no publication involved

(Katharina Schreiber, personal communication 1990) or Katharina Schreiber (personal communication 1990)

Note: Give full name and date. Personal communications should be used sparingly and should never be used when a published citation is available for the same information. Written permission to use any information provided in a personal communication must be obtained from the person(s) providing it. Personal communication citations appear only in the text and are not duplicated in the References Cited section.

 

3.4.17 Web pages and electronic documents

Treat web pages and electronic documents as published data, but cite the document accordingly as a single- or multiple-authored document, or as one produced by a group or agency (no author specified). For example:

(Glascock 2001; Shackley 2001) or Glascock (2001), Shackley (2001); likewise, for a group citation use (Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory 2001), or Northwest Research Obsidian Laboratories (2001).

 

3.5 Citations and References in REVIEWS and BOOK NOTES

References in REVIEWS should be used sparingly if at all; they are never used in BOOK NOTES. When they occur, they should be placed in the text, in shortened form, enclosed in parentheses.

1.   Article: (Ashmore, Latin American Antiquity 2:199–225).

2.   Book: (Willey, Introduction to American Archaeology, vol. 1, 1966).

3.   Review: (Tilley, Review of Binford, American Antiquity 57:164–166).

4.   Citations to the book under review require only the page numbers: (p. 5), (pp. 83–89).

3.6 Tables

Authors should present tables as a separate file generated by a recent version of a common word-processing program supported on both the Macintosh and Windows platforms. Tabular presentation of data should be used sparingly. Data in a very short table, for example, can often be included in the text with no loss of clarity. Large numbers of individual, similar facts, however, are best presented in a table. Consult Chapter 12 of The Chicago Manual of Style for detailed information on planning and constructing tables; also see recent issues of the journals.

3.6.1 Size

 

When constructing a table, keep in mind the physical limitations of the journals' size. A table with more than 10 to 12 columns will often have to be placed sideways on the journal page; wider tables will need to be broken up or set in reduced type.

3.6.2 Typing

 

All sections of the table should be double spaced, with each table beginning a new page.

3.6.3 Numbering and title

 

Use Arabic numerals and number all tables sequentially in the order cited in the text. Provide a short title for each table, centered at the top of the page, with significant words in initial caps. The title should not provide background information or describe the results illustrated by the table. Example of correct title:

Table 2. Weir Family Cemetery Skeletal Summary.

3.6.4 Rules and headings

 

Use no vertical rules. Provide horizontal rules only above and below the table's column headings and beneath the last row of data; no internal horizontal rules are allowed. Each column and row should have a brief heading. The left-hand column of a table is called a "stub." Capitalization of stub headings is sentence style, while all significant words are capitalized in the column headings.

3.6.5 Body

 

If a column heading does not apply to one of the items in the stub, that "cell" should be left blank (do not use N.A. for "not applicable"). All numeric cell entries are decimal aligned and do not use leading zeros. If there are no data for a particular cell, insert a dash (-). Use tabs, not the space bar, to create columns.

3.6.6 Footnotes

 

There are three kinds of footnotes for tables. The title of a table should never be footnoted; place information pertinent to the entire table in a "general note" (see below). Information regarding the source of data for a table should either go in a general note (if all information taken from a single source) or in a table footnote specific to a particular entry, section, or head (see below).

1.   General notes pertaining to the entire table. Example:

Note: Data from Kent (1991); all dimensions in mm.

2.   Notes specific to entry, section, or head. Examples:
aC = child; A = adult.
bContains decorative brass elements identical to those found with Burials 2 and 6.
cData from Owsley et al. (1987).

3.   Notes indicating a level of statistical significance. Examples:
*p < .05.
**p < .01.

Note: Arrange notes, each one beginning on its own line, flush left, in the following order: general notes, specific notes indicated by superscript lowercase letters (not numbers), and significance notes indicated by asterisks.

3.6.7 Citation

 

Every table must be cited in the text, beginning with Table 1 and continuing sequentially; do not abbreviate the word "Table." Examples: (Table 1), (Tables 1 and 2), (Tables 1–3), (Tables 2, 3, and 7), "As illustrated in Table 1…"

 

3.7 Figures

All illustrative materials are referred to as "Figures;" the journals do not use "Plates," "Maps," or other such terms. Authors are responsible for supplying figures electronically at a high resolution. TIFF files are preferred for most line drawings and JPEG for most photographs. When sending TIFF or JPEG files, the output resolution should be set to at least 600 dpi at the size at which they are to be published; do not use any lossy compression. If you prepare EPS files, include the "header" or "preview" and save any text as graphics if the program gives that option. Figures may be published in full color at the author’s expense, on recommendation from the editor and by arrangement with the managing editor.

3.7.1 Size

 

Most figures are reduced before publication. The maximum dimensions of a published figure are 5.75 in (ca. 15 cm) by 8 in (20.3 cm). Extremely complex illustrations with considerable detail and small lettering will not reduce well.

3.7.2 Drawing and lettering

 

Use letters that are large enough so they will reproduce well even when reduced. Avoid cluttered illustrations. The caption should never be drafted directly onto the figure. Each original figure should be lightly numbered in pencil on the back to key with the captions list (see below). All symbolic keys to map or chart conventions should appear on the figure itself, not separately in the caption. Maps must have orientation arrows. Use a visual scale when objects, plans, sections, etc., are included in the figure. Place the scale on the actual figure, not in the caption. Do not use the form "1 cm equals 450 cm"; because almost all figures are reduced before publication, such scales will not be accurate after reduction. Wording on figures must conform to the journals' style, e.g., "cm" not "cm.," "A.D." not "AD," and accents should be added where necessary.

3.7.3 Numbering and captions

 

Use Arabic numerals and number all figures sequentially in the order cited in the text. Provide a succinct caption for each figure, using sentence-only capitalization. Place all captions together, double spaced, on a separate page or pages. This list will precede the actual figures, which are placed in front of the tables at the end of the manuscript. Refer to the following examples of figure captions for placement of essential elements.

Figure 2. The distribution of Numic languages in the Great Basin.

Figure 4. Electron micrographs of carbonized remains from the Copán Valley: (a) Phaseolus sp. (bean) seed; (b) Celtis sp. (hackberry) pit; (c) Pinus sp. (pine) charcoal; (d) Albizzia sp. charcoal.

Note: Only lowercase letters are used to identify sections of a figure.

Figure 10. Two views of a Moche stirrup-spout bottle (spout missing): left, the Supernatural Human Decapitator holds his tumi at the Monster's throat, apparently about to decapitate him; right, he grasps the hair of the Monster Decapitator (Museo Nacional de Antropología y Arqueología, Lima. Courtesy C. Donnan, photographer).

3.7.4 Citation

 

Every figure must be cited in the text and must be numbered sequentially in the order it appears, using the following form. Do not abbreviate the word "Figure." Example: (Figure 2), (Figures 2–5), (Figures 1 and 2), (Figure 7a–f), (Figures 1, 2, and 5), "As shown in Figure 5.…"

 

3.8 Acknowledgments

The Acknowledgments section of a manuscript is inserted at the end of the text, using a tertiary heading—Acknowledgments.—immediately preceding the References Cited section. Financial, institutional, intellectual, and technical support (e.g., drafting of figures, translation of abstract) for completion of a project and manuscript should be cited, but this section must be brief. Verbose acknowledgments will be edited prior to publication.

 

3.9 References Cited

The format described here is to be used only for ARTICLES, REPORTS, COMMENTS, FORUM manuscripts, and BOOK REVIEW ESSAYS. For the format to be used for REVIEWS, see section 3.5. The reference section begins a new page, under the primary heading REFERENCES CITED, and must be double spaced throughout. Entries should be flush left with an extra space between each entry. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of all references used. All references cited in the text must appear in the References Cited section list (except for personal communications and primary-source materials), and all entries in the list must be cited in the text.

Alphabetize the References Cited section by the last names of authors, and use complete first names and middle initials for authors and editors as they appear on the title page of the work. (Use initials only for authors known by initials [e.g., C. S. Lewis]). "Mc" should be alphabetized as if it were spelled "Mac." Two or more works by the same author or authors should be listed chronologically; two or more by the same author or authors in the same year should be listed in the order they are first referred to in the text and differentiated by lowercase letters following the date (i.e., 1991a, 1991b; see examples below). An exception is discussed in subsection 3.4.5 above. Arrange the parts of each reference in the general order: author(s), date, title, publisher, location of publisher. For name of publisher, do not include "and Company," "Inc.," "Publishers," "Publishing Company," etc. Except in the most obvious cases (New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Boston, Lima, Bogotá, Mexico City, Paris, London [England], etc.), include state name (but spell out the state name and do not use the United States Postal Service abbreviations) along with city, and, if necessary, country, name for place of publication. Follow the examples given below for arrangement. When in doubt about what to include in a reference, and if no suitable example occurs below, include all information appearing on the title page of the work and the managing editor will make the appropriate deletions. Reproduce punctuation and spelling of words in a title exactly, and consult subsection 3.3.12 for the use of accents in titles.

3.9.1 Book, single author

 

Elster, Jon

1989 Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Morales Padrón, Fransisco

1971 Historia del descubrimiento y conquista de América. 2nd ed. Editora Nacional, Madrid.

Note: Use appropriate format for foreign-language titles with respect to capitalization, accents, etc. For titles published in non-Roman alphabets—Chinese, Cyrillic, etc.—give title in Romanized transcription when possible, with English translation of the title following immediately in brackets.

3.9.2 Book, multiple authors

 

Hampton, David R., Charles E. Summer, and Ross A. Weber

1978 Organizational Behavior and the Practice of Management. 3rd ed. Scott, Foresman, Glenview, Illinois.

Note: Place only the first author's name in reverse order and always use serial commas when two or more authors are included. This example also illustrates how to treat a later edition. For ordinal number of edition, use 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, etc., and set off numbered editions with periods. Also, note whether an edition is revised or if it is a facsimile edition, and note that the letters following the edition number are not superscripted.

3.9.3 Edited or compiled book (editor or compiler as "author")

 

Dibble, Charles E. (editor)

1980 [sixteenth century] Codice Xolotl. Universidad Autónoma de México, México, D.F.

McHugh, William P. (editor)

1977 The Teaching of Archaeology. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.

3.9.4 Translated book

 

Bonavia, Duccio

1985 Mural Painting in Ancient Peru. Translated by P. J. Lyon. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

3.9.5 Reissued or reprinted book

 

When it is desirable to indicate the original publication date of a book together with the reissue or reprint date (see subsection 3.4.14 above), the following format should be used.

Russell and Erwin Manufacturing Company

1980 [1865] Illustrated Catalog of American Hardware of the Russell and Erwin Manufacturing Company. Russell and Erwin Manufacturing Company, New Britain, Connecticut. 1980 facsimile ed. Association for Preservation Technology, Ottawa.

Note: Corresponding citations in the text would be, e.g., (Russell and Erwin 1980 [1865]).

In cases where a century or less separate the original date of publication from the reprint or reissue date, use this format:

Densmore, Frances

1970 Chippewa Customs. Reprinted. Ross and Haines, Minneapolis. Originally published 1929, Bulletin No. 86, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Note: The corresponding text citation would be (Densmore 1970).

3.9.6 Book or other item, no author

 

SCS Engineers

1986 A Survey of Household Hazardous Waste and Related Collection Programs. SCS Engineers, Reston, Virginia.

Secretaría de Programación y Presupuesto (SPP)

1981 Carta edafológica. Thematic map, 1:1,000,000. SPP. México, D.F.

U.S. Government Printing Office

1967 Style Manual. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

3.9.7 Multivolume set

 

Biggar, Henry P. (editor)

1929 The Works of Samuel de Champlain, vol. III. The Champlain Society, Toronto.

Thwaites, Reuben G. (editor)

1896–1901 The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. 73 vols. Burrows Brothers, Cleveland.

Beals, Ralph L., and Joseph A. Hester, Jr.

1974 Indian Land Use and Occupancy in California. 3 vols. Garland, New York.

Note: The name of the set is italicized, and the volume number follows, set off by a comma, to specify reference to a single volume. The reference must be unequivocal about whether a particular volume or the entire set is referenced, and which volume in each case. See subsection 3.4.10 for citation format for single volumes when more than one is cited.

3.9.8 Titled volume/monograph in a series

 

Thomas, David H.

1983 The Archaeology of Monitor Valley: 2. Gatecliff Shelter. Anthropological Papers Vol. 59, Pt. 1. American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Hack, John T.

1942 Prehistoric Coal Mining in the Jeddito Valley, Arizona. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 35, No. 2. Harvard University, Cambridge.

Madsen, David B., and James F. O'Connell (editors)

1982 Man and Environment in the Great Basin. SAA Papers No. 2. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.

Parsons, Jeffrey R.

1971 Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Texcoco Region, Mexico. Memoirs No. 3. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Note: Italicize the title of the volume/monograph and list the series name, publisher, and place of publication in the format given above. Note that in the first two examples no comma precedes "Vol." because these examples are not volumes in the true sense (as in subsection 3.9.7 above), but rather are distinct numbered monographs in a series (not a set).

3.9.9 Article in a journal

 

Ashmore, Wendy

1991 Site-Planning Principles and Concepts of Directionality Among the Ancient Maya. Latin American Antiquity 2:199–226.

Note: Issue number is not used when the journal is paginated continuously (sequentially paged) throughout the volume (see next example). Note also that both journals always employ all digits in page references.

Seifert, Donna J.

1991 Within Sight of the White House: The Archaeology Working Women. Historical Archaeology 25(4):82–108.

Note: If each issue of a journal begins with page 1, the issue number must be included, in parentheses, following the volume number.

3.9.10 Article, group author

 

The Royal Society Conference of Editors

1968 Metrification in Scientific Journals. American Scientist 56:159–164.

3.9.11 Article in a magazine, no author

 

The Indian Homeland

1991 U.S. News and World Report. 8 July:27–28.

Note: This format also applies to encyclopedia entries. Discount the initial article when alphabetizing. For an authored article in a magazine, follow the format for an article in a journal, but use the date, month, and page numbers as specified here.

3.9.12 Item in a newspaper

 

When nonauthored items appear:

Weekly Missouri Courier (WMC) [Palmyra, Missouri]

1838 [short description of what is being cited, e.g., "Advertisement placed by J. H. and A. A. Stirman."] 7 July:[page numbers, if paginated]. Palmyra, Missouri.

When authored items appear:

Noble, John W.

2002 When Humans Became Human. New York Times 26 February:D1, D5. New York.

3.9.13 Article in edited book or monograph

 

Manzanilla, Linda

1999 The Emergence of Complex Urban Societies in Central Mexico: The Case of Teotihuacan. In Archaeology in Latin America, edited by Gustavo G. Politis and Benjamin Alberti, pp. 93–129. Routledge, London.

Note: Multiple editors are listed in full; "et al." is not used here.

Bartel, Brad

1985 Comparative Historical Archaeology and Archaeological Theory. In Comparative Studies in the Archaeology of Colonialism, edited by S. L. Dyson, pp. 8–37. BAR International Series 233. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.

3.9.14 Article in edited volume in a series

 

Heidenreich, Conrad E.

1978 Huron. In Northeast, edited by Bruce G. Trigger, pp. 368–388. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Note: The same reference format is used for articles in the Handbook of Middle American Indians and the Handbook of South American Indians.

Kohl, Philip L.

1987 The Use and Abuse of World Systems Theory: The Case of the Pristine West Asian State. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, vol. 11, edited by M. B. Schiffer, pp. 1–35. Academic Press, San Diego.

Note: When the volumes are individually titles, the volume title is italicized; otherwise, the series name is italicized. The editor's name follows the volume title or series name and volume number, and is followed by the inclusive page numbers.

3.9.15 Article in proceedings, transactions, or annual reports series

 

Gruhn, Ruth, and Alan L. Bryan

1977 Los Tapiales: A Paleoindian Site in the Guatemalan Highlands. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 121:235–273. Philadelphia.

3.9.16 Paper presented at a meeting

 

Adams, Jenny

2002 The Technology of Ritual Behavior. Paper presented at the 67th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Denver.

Note: Written permission from the author(s) of a presented paper must be obtained before it may be cited. Use Roman or Arabic numerals for the number of the conference, congress, etc., as is used in the name and be sure to include the location.

3.19.17 A book review

 

Potter, Parker B., Jr.

1992 Review of Reading Material Culture: Structuralism, Hermeneutics, and Post-Structuralism, edited by C. Tilley. American Antiquity 57:556–557.

3.9.18 Contract and proprietary reports

 

Use the following format only for reports that are not published as parts of any series. When a series is identified (e.g., Archaeological Series, Arizona State Museum; Research Series, Arkansas Archeological Survey), follow the format for volumes/monographs in a series given in subsections 3.9.8 and 3.9.14 above. Otherwise, cite by author(s), editor(s), or compilers, as appropriate; date of completion or submission; and title. Follow that with the name of the institution through which the report was prepared, and then the agency or institution that paid for the report. Occasionally these will be the same; if so, indicate that clearly. Contract numbers should be given when available, and National Technical Information Service (NTIS) numbers when appropriate. In an effort to alleviate the problem of nonavailability of "gray" literature, indicate where copies may be obtained. Cite only materials that are publicly available. Authors should make special efforts to obtain all the listed information for their citations, even when some is not given in the publication.

Elston, Robert G., Jonathan O. Davis, and G. Townsend

1976 An Intensive Archeological Investigation of the Hawkins Land Exchange Site. Nevada Archeological Survey. Submitted to USDA Forest Service, Contract No. 3905320. Copies available from Nevada Archeological Survey, Reno.

3.9.19 Dissertation or thesis

 

If you consult a non-microfilm copy of a dissertation or thesis, use the following format:

Fritz, Gayle J.

1986 Prehistoric Ozark Agriculture: The University of Arkansas Rockshelter Collections. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

If you consult a University Microfilms copy of a dissertation or thesis:

Moore, Jerry D.

1985 Household Economics and Political Integration: The Lower Class of the Chimu Empire. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.

Note: For a Master's thesis, use the designation "Master's thesis" in place of "Ph.D. dissertation." Be sure to indicate where the thesis or dissertation can be located.

3.9.20 In-press manuscript (article or book)

 

These formats should be used only if a manuscript has been accepted for publication.

Note: Material submitted but not yet accepted for publication (i.e., still under consideration) should be referenced in manuscript form (see subsection 3.9.21).

Vehik, Susan C.

2002 Conflict, Trade, and Political Development on the Southern Plains. American Antiquity, in press.

Note: Use this format when it is certain that the item will be published in the year cited.

3.9.21 Unpublished manuscript

 

All use of unpublished manuscripts requires written permission from the author(s), or in cases where materials are held by a repository, permission from the repository. Cite the year in which the manuscript was written. Never use "n.d." If a date is not available, give a best estimate (e.g., ca. 1962, ca. 1970s). All updates should be furnished as available (i.e., if an unpublished manuscript is accepted for publication).

If you are referencing your own unpublished material, or a copy of someone else's unpublished material that is in your possession, give complete information about where a copy may be obtained, including, for example, university department name, university and city branch if more than one, and city and state names if they cannot be determined from university name.

Note: It is not acceptable to use the format "Ms. in possession of author."

Kent, Susan

1992 The Organization of Storage Areas: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Manuscript on file, Anthropology Program, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.

If you are referencing materials such as field notes, reports, etc., that are on file in a repository, consider the following examples:

Borchers, Perry E. (supervisor)

1971–1975 Restoration Drawings of the Pueblo of Walpi and The Pueblo of Walpi at the Southwestern End of the First Mesa, Hopi Reservation, Arizona. Drawings on file, Historic American Buildings Survey, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

Dellinger, Samuel C.

1932 Original unpublished field notes from the Ozark bluff shelters. Manuscript on file, University of Arkansas Museum, Fayetteville.

Note: If the material is untitled, give it a brief description (write with sentence-style capitalization).

Wagner, G. N.

1990 Autopsy Protocol for Walter Weir. Manuscript on file, Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Washington, D.C.

3.9.22 Web pages and electronic documents

 

Use the following format to reference web pages and electronic documents:

Glascock, Michael D.

2001 Archaeometry Laboratory at MURR. Electronic document, http://missouri.edu/~glascock/archlab.html, accessed April 12, 2002.

Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory

2001 XRF Information. Electronic document, http://www.obsidianlab.com, accessed April 12, 2002.

 

3.10 Notes

 Notes should be used sparingly in a manuscript to provide absolutely essential additional information or clarification only when inclusion of that information in the actual text would prove disruptive to the flow of the manuscript by adding too much detail on a particular point or by additional material tangential to the argument in progress. The section with the text for all notes begins a new page after the end of the References Cited section of the paper, under the primary heading "Notes." Double space all entries, and list each note, paragraph style, beginning with the appropriate number. Example:

1. Surveys currently are being conducted in the Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu, and Cuntisuyu areas of the Cuzco region. The preliminary results of these surveys supports the findings presented here.

2. 3.11 Additional References for Authors

3. American Psychological Association

4. 1983 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 3rd ed. APA, Washington, D.C.

5. Follett, William

6. 1998 Modern American Usage: A Guide. Revised by Erik Wensberg. Hill and Wang, New York.

7. Gifford, Carol A., and Carol A. Heathington

8. 1989 Arizona State Museum Style Guide. 2nd ed. Archaeological Series No. 180. Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson.

9. Goldstein, Norm (editor)

10. 2000 The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. Fully updated. Perseus, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

11. Johnson, Edward D.

12. 1991 The Handbook of Good English. Facts on File, New York.

13. Landes, Kenneth K.

14. 1966 A Scrutiny of the Abstract, II. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 50:1992.

15. Merriam-Webster

16. 1981 Webster's Third New International Dictionary (unabridged), Merriam-Webster, Springfield, Massachusetts. (For word usage not found in the Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed.)

17. 1985 Webster's Standard American Style Manual. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, Massachusetts.

18. 1993 Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 10th ed. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, Massachusetts. (The authority for spelling in American Antiquity and Latin American Antiquity.)

19. Miller, Casey, and Kate Swift

20. 1988 The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing for Writers, Editors and Speakers. 2nd ed. HarperCollins, New York.

21. National Textbook Company

22. 1984 Vox New College Spanish and English Dictionary. National Textbook Company, Chicago.

23. Real Academia Española

24. 1992 Diccionario de la lengua española, Vigésima primera edición. 2 vols. Editorial Espasa Calpe, S.A., Madrid.

25. The Royal Society, London, England

26. 1966 Guide for Preparation and Publication of Abstracts. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 50:1993.

27. Strunk, W., Jr., and E. B. White

28. 1979 The Elements of Style. 3rd ed. Macmillan, New York.

29. Swanson, E.

30. 1979 Mathematics into Type. Rev. ed. American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island.

31. University of Chicago Press

32. 1993 The Chicago Manual of Style. 14th ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

33. 1987 Chicago Guide to Preparing Electronic Manuscripts for Authors and Publishers. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

34. 3.11 Additional References for Authors

35. American Psychological Association

36. 1983 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 3rd ed. APA, Washington, D.C.

37. Follett, William

38. 1998 Modern American Usage: A Guide. Revised by Erik Wensberg. Hill and Wang, New York.

39. Gifford, Carol A., and Carol A. Heathington

40. 1989 Arizona State Museum Style Guide. 2nd ed. Archaeological Series No. 180. Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson.

41. Goldstein, Norm (editor)

42. 2000 The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. Fully updated. Perseus, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

43. Johnson, Edward D.

44. 1991 The Handbook of Good English. Facts on File, New York.

45. Landes, Kenneth K.

46. 1966 A Scrutiny of the Abstract, II. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 50:1992.

47. Merriam-Webster

48. 1981 Webster's Third New International Dictionary (unabridged), Merriam-Webster, Springfield, Massachusetts. (For word usage not found in the Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed.)

49. 1985 Webster's Standard American Style Manual. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, Massachusetts.

50. 1993 Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 10th ed. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, Massachusetts. (The authority for spelling in American Antiquity and Latin American Antiquity.)

51. Miller, Casey, and Kate Swift

52. 1988 The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing for Writers, Editors and Speakers. 2nd ed. HarperCollins, New York.

53. National Textbook Company

54. 1984 Vox New College Spanish and English Dictionary. National Textbook Company, Chicago.

55. Real Academia Española

56. 1992 Diccionario de la lengua española, Vigésima primera edición. 2 vols. Editorial Espasa Calpe, S.A., Madrid.

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